Background: Erythrocyte antigens have long been associated with the aetiology and
pathogenesis of several disease conditions including various cancers and some human
behaviour. This study investigates the association of these antigens with myeloid leukaemias.
Methods: This is a case-control study on subjects with age range of 6 to 67 years, undergoing
management for the disease in our study facility at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital.
24 cases of myeloid leukaemias comprising of 13 chronic myeloid leukaemias (CML) and 11
acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) were investigated with 25 apparently healthy, age and sex -
matched subjects as control. Erythrocyte antigens such as A, B, O, RhD, RhC, Rhc, RhE, Rhe,
Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb were determined on all subjects and controls. The absence of A and B
antigens is represented as O. All the antigens were detected with standard serological methods.
Statistical analyses were done using Graphpad Prism 8.0.1. Results: We recorded positive
association of antigens D, e, Jka, O, E and C with the associated risk of development of CML
in the order of D>>e>>Jka>>O>>E>>C (P<0.05, respectively) while antigens D, e, Jka, Fyb,
E, O and A were positively associated with the risk of development of AML in the order
D>>e>>Jka>>Fyb>>E>>O>>A (P<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The antigens D, e, Jka,
O, E, C implicated in this study can serve as risk factors for the development of CML while
antigens D, e, Jk, Fyb, E, O, A could be risk factors for the development of AML or can
contribute majorly to tumour aggression and therefore can be considered as markers for early
diagnosis of the malignancies.