Hematinic effect of locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds on phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in rats


Parkia biglobosa, phenyhydrazine, hematology, rats


Background: Hematinic effect of the extract of locust bean seeds was investigated
following Phenylhydrazine (primarily used as antipyretics) administration in wistar
rats. Methods: The phytochemical, chemical and mineral constituents of the locust bean
seeds were evaluated. 25 adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Group 1
rats were untreated control; Group 2 received only phenylhydrazine: (negative controls);
Group 3 received phenylhydrazine +100 mg/kg of extract; Group 4 received phenylhydrazine
+1000 mg/kg of extract; Group 5 received phenylhydrazine + 0.23 ml/kg of Bioferon®:
phenylhydrazine (40mg/kg body weight) was administered via intraperitoneal route on day 0,
with two additional doses given at 9am and 6pm, on day 1 of the experiment; the seed extracts
of Parkia biglobosa and Bioferon were both administered orally for 14 days. On day 15, the
rats were anesthetized by chloroform and blood was collected by direct cardiac puncture.
Packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), Red blood cell counts (RBC), Mean corpuscular
volume (MCV), Mean concentration of hemoglobin (MCH), Reticulocytes and Mean
corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined using automated machine
(Sysmex apparatus of the type 8999). Results: The phytochemical analysis of the extract
revealed the presence of tannis, alkaloids, flavonoid, saponin, steroid and glycosides. The
chemical analysis indicated the presence of moisture, protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash,
carbohydrate, and nitrogen. The mineral contents of the extract revealed the presence of:
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Manganese, Copper and Phosphorus.
Phenylhydrazine significantly reduced all erythrocyte parameters in group 2 rats when
compared with group 1 rats (p<0.05). However, administration of the extract and Bioferon
significantly increased values of all erythrocyte parameters in groups 4 and 5 rats respectively
compared with group 2 rats. Conclusion: The results suggest a possible hematinic effect of
the extract of locust bean seeds on the parameters of erythrocyte following phenylhydrazine
administration. The observed effects of the extract could possibly be from the rich nutritional
content of the P. biglobosa seeds.