Methanolic Extract of Ricinus Communis ameliorated cardiovascular dysfunction in dichlorvos-exposed rats
Click to view file (PDF)


Cadiovascular diseases,
Ricinus communis
cardiovascular variable,
electrocardiac function
dichlorvos (DDVP),

How to Cite

Adeoye, S. W. A., Mayowa, M., Akano, F., & Sultan, A. (2023). Methanolic Extract of Ricinus Communis ameliorated cardiovascular dysfunction in dichlorvos-exposed rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 38(2), 231–239.


 Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death globally resulting in 17-19 million death every year. The search for an effective medicine to manage cardiovascular disorder without any side effect has led to the use of traditional based medicine. 75% of the world’s population has been reported to depend on traditional medicine as their basic form of health care and this has resulted to the use of herbal medicine in the treatment and management of metabolic diseases. The study evaluated the effect of methanolic extract of Ricinus communis on DDVP-induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Thirty-two (32) male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight (8) rats each. Group A served as control rats, received 10mL/Kg of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water solution (vehicle) for six weeks. Group B served as DDVP-induced rats and were exposed to DDVP (15 minutes daily) for 3 weeks without any treatment. Group C rats received DDVP as in group B and then administered 300mg/kg of R. communis extract for 42days. While Group D rats were administered 300mg/kg of R. communis extract daily, for 6 weeks in addition to normal feed and water. Exposure to DDVP caused significant cardiac dysfunction evidence by alteration in cardiovascular variables and electrocardiac function, compromised lipid profile and reduced antioxidant enzymes. However, treatment with methanolic extract of Ricinus communis improved antioxidant defense system, attenuate hemodynamic impairment and left ventricular dysfunction, as well as inhibit lipid peroxidation and prevent hyperlipidemia in rats. In addition, histopathology observation showed that Ricinus communis extract was able to regenerate the myocardial injury caused by exposure to dichlorvos. In conclusion, Ricinus communis exhibited cardioprotective properties and may be a potential remedy for cardiovascular diseases with low risk of toxicity
Click to view file (PDF)


World Health Organization (2017). Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) (World Health Organization). Available: detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(CVDs) [Accessed 26-06-2019.

Forreira, J.P. (2020) Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death distinction: the utility of troponin beyond N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Findings from the BIOSTAT-CHF study. European Journal of Heart Failure, 22(1), pp. 81-89.

Leone A. (2015) Preventive measures to fight cardiovascular death disease: Current Results and future perspectives. J cardiol curr Res 3(4): 00110.

Cannon, C.P. (2007). Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors. Clin Cornerstone.8(3): 11-28.

Mahmood S.S., Ley D., Vasan R.S., Wang T.J. (2014). The Framinghan Heart study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: a historical perspective. Lancet. Mar 15:383(9921). 999-1008.

Anna L.H. (2010). Role of oxidative stress in organophosphate insecticide toxicity – Short review. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 98(2):145-50.

Mostafalou S., Abdollahi M. (2013). Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidence, mechanisms, and perspectives. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 268:157–77.

USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency. Dichlorvos TEACH Chemical summary U.S EPA. Toxicity and exposure assessment for children; 2007. pp. 1–13.

U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) (1995). Hazardous Substance Data Bank. Washington, DC. Pp5-9.

Saka W. A., Adeshina O. S., Yusuf M. G., Omole A. I (2022a). Hepatoprotective and Renoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil on Dichlorvos-induced Toxicity in Male Wistar rats. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 37: 119 – 126.

WHO: World Health Organization. (1992). International Programme on chemical safety. WHO recommended classification of pesticide by hazards and guidelines to classification 1994–1995, UNEP/ILO/WHO.

Karki P., Ansari J.A., Bhandary S., Koirala S, (2004) Cardiac and electrocardio-graphical manifestations of acute organophosphate poisoning. Singapore Med J 45: 385-389.

Henshaw U.O. and Iwara A.I. (2018). Dichlorvos toxicity: A public health perspective. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2018 Aug 11(2): 129-137.

Greim, H., Saltmiras, D., Mostert, V., Strupp, C. (2015). Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenity rodent studies Crit Rev. Toxicol. 2015 Mar; 45(3): 185-208.

Bhinder, P. and Chaudhry, A. (2013). Mutagenicity Assessment of organophosphates using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Toxicol Int. 20(3): 254 – 260.

Soboleve, V.E; Sokolava, M.O; Jenkins, R.O.; Goncharou, N.V (2021). Nephrotic Effects of Paraoxon in three rat models of acute intoxication. Int. J. Mol. Sci; 22, 13625.

Ameh, G.I. and Eze C.S. (2010). Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Evaluation of the leaves of Talium triangulare (Jacq) Wild. Nig. J. Biotech. Vol. 21(2010) 50-54. ISSN: 018917131.

Oladele O. (2016). The characteristics and Roles of Medicinal Plants; Some Important Medicinal Plants in Nigeria. Nat Prod. Ind J. 12(3):102.

Singh A, Uppal G. A. (2015). Review on Carissa Caranadas phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology and micropropagation as conservation strategy. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 63(3): 367-375.

Scarpa A. and Guerci A. (1982). “Various uses of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.). A Review :Journal OS Ethnopharmacology. Vol. 5, No 2, pp. 117-137.

Chan AP, Crabtree J, Zhao Q, Lorenzi H, Orvis J, Puiu D, et al. (2010). Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis. Nat Biotechnol 28(9): 951-956.

Toplak Galle K. Domestic medicinal plants. Zagreb: Mozaic book; 2005. pp. 60–1.

Waseem M, Abdul I, Nahid HH, Jamal SM, Saleh AK, Kulvinder SS, Roop SB (2018). Therapeutic role of Ricinus communis L. and its bioactive compounds in disease prevention and treatment. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 11(3) March 2018.

Shargorodsky M, O Debby, Z Mattas, R Zimlichman (2010) Effect of long term treatment of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q and selenium) on arterial compliance, humoral factor and inflammatory markers in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Nutrition and metabolism 7: 55-63.

Nortjie, E., Basitere, M., Moyo, D., Nyamukamba, P. (2022). Extraction Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants for Antimicrobial Textiles: A Review. Plants.

Roger V.L. (2007). Epidemiology of myocardial infarction. Med Clin N Am. 91(4):537–552.

Saka W.A, Kehinde B.D, Akintola A.O, Akwu B.P, Ibikunle G.J, Owolabi G.O, Adeshina O.S. and Folorunso K.P (2022b). Cardiotoxic effects of car paint fumes exposure on cardiac tissues of male wistar rats. J Bio Med Open Access; 3(2):126.

Misra H.P. and Fridovich I. (1972). The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem. 247(10):3170–3175.

Kakkar P., Das B. and Viswanathan P.N. (1984). A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 21:130-132.

Saka, W.A., Ayoade, T.E., Akhigbe, T.M. and Akhigbe, R.E. (2020). Moringa oleifera seed oil partially abrogates 2,3-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (Dichlorvos)-induced cardiac injury in rats: evidence of role of oxidative stress. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol:20190313.

Varshney R and Kale R.K.(1990). Effect of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes. Int J Biol. 158:733–741.

Aebi H. (1974). Catalase. In: Bergmeyer HU, editor, Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany; 1974; 673-678p. 29.

Abiona O.O, Anifowose A.J., Awojide S.H., Adebisi O.C., Adesina B.T. and Ipinmoroti M.O. (2019). Histopathological biomarking changes in the internal organ of Tilapia (Oreochomis niloticus) and Cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to heavy metal contamination from Dandaru pond, Ibadan, Nigeria, Journal of Taibah University for Science, 13:1, 903-911.

Avwioro, O.G. (2010). Histochemistry and tissue pathology, principle and techniques, Claverianum press, Nigeria.

Tsitsimpikou, C., Tzatzarakis, M., Fragkiadaki, P., Kovatsi, L., Stivaktakis, P., Kalogeraki, A., Kouretas, D. & Tsatsakis, A.M (2013). Histopathological lesions, oxidative stress and genotoxic effects in liver and kidneys following long term exposure of rabbits to diazinon and propoxur. Toxicology., 10; 307:109-14.

Kumar SV, Fareedullah M, Sudhakar Y, Venkateswarlu B, Kumar EA (2010). Current review on organophosphorus poisoning. Arch Appl Sci Res 4: 199-215.

Jun Liu, Liang Chen, Huihe Lu (2018). Cardioprotective effect of salvianolic acid B against isoproterenol-induced inflammation and histological changes in a cardiotoxicity rat model. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 17 (11): 2189-2197.

Chung, K. T. (1998). Tannins and Human Health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 38(6):421-64.

Chung J.W., Kim N., Kang J., Park S.H., Kim W.J, Ko Y., Bae H.J. (2015). Blood pressure variability and development of early neurological deterioration following acute ischemic stroke. Journal of Hypertension. 33(10) 2099-2106.

Armstrong, M., Kerndt, C.C., Moore, R.A. (2021). Physiology, Baroreceptors. Ini Satatpearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.

Cheng S., Keyes M.J., Larson M.G., McCabe E.L., Newton-Cheh C., Levy D et al. (2009). Long term outcomes in individuals with prolonged PR interval or first degree atrioventricular block, JAMA, Catterall WA 301: 2571-2577

Kurl S, Makikallio TH, Rautaharju P, Kiviniemi V, Laukkanen JA. (2012). Duration of QRS complex in resting electrocardiogram is a predictor of sudden cardiac death in men. Circulation 125:2588-2594

Kass DA, Chen CH, Curry C. et al. Improved left ventricular mechanics from acute VDD pacing in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular conduction delay. Circulation. 1999;99:1567-1573.

Trinkley KE, Page RN, Lien H,Yamonouye K, Tisade JE. QT interval prolongation and the risk of torsades de pointers:essentials for clinicians. Curr Med Res Opin 2013; 29:1719-26

Charan SK, Arora S, Goyal S, Kishore K, Ray R, Chandra NT, et al. (2009) Cardioprotective effects of benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, in an ischaemia-reperfusion model of myocardial infarction in rats. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 10: 201-9.

Olayinka ET, Ore A, and Akinnawo OO (2011). Protective role of ethanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheath against cadmium‑induced oxidative stress in rats. Int J Pharm Biomed Res. 2:254‑260.

Kwiterovich P.O. (2000). The metabolic pathways of high-density lipoprotein, low-densitylipoprotein, and triglycerides: a current review. The American Journal of Cardiology. 12: 5-10. 2000.

Oyewole O.I, Shoremi M.O., and Oladele J.O (2016). “Modulatory Effects of Ricinus Communis Leaf Extract on Cadmium Chloride-Induced Hyperlipidemia and Pancytopenia in Rats.” American Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 4, no. 2 (2016): 38-41. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-2-2.

Oyewole O.I, Owoseni A.A. and Faboro E.O. (2010). Studies on medicinal and Toxicological properties of Cajanus cajan, Ricinus communis and Thymus vulgaris. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 4(19): 2004-2008.

Kensa V.M. and Syhed Y.S. (2011). Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity on Ricinus communis L. Plant Sciences Feed. 1 (9): 167-173.

Brown D.J. (1996). Herbal prescriptions for better health. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing. 139-44.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, et al (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants, and functional foods impact human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 4:118‑126.

Dailey Roopha P and Padmalatha C (2012). Effect of an herbal preparation on heavy metal (cadmium) induced antioxidant system in female Wistar rats. J Med Toxicol. 8:101‑117. 42.

Prabu SM, Muthumani M, Shagirtha K (2013). Quercetin potentially attenuate cadmium-induced oxidative stressmediated cardiotoxicity and dyslipidemia in rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 17:582‑595.

Saka WA, Akhigbe RE, Abidoye AO, Dare OS, and Adekunle AO (2021). Suppression of uric acid generation and blockade of glutathione dysregulation by L-arginine ameliorates dichlorvos-induced oxidative hepatorenal damage in rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy; 138: 111443.

Ahmed, D., Khan, M. and Saeed, R. (2015). Comparative analysis of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant and antibacterial potential of methanolic, hexanic and aqueous extracts from Adiantum caudatum leaves. Antioxidants. 4(2): 394-409.

Khalil, M.I., Ahmmed, I., Ahmed, R., Tanvir, E.M., Afroz, R., Paul, S. et al. (2015).‘Amelioration of isoproterenol-induced oxidative damage in rat myocardium by Withania somnifera leaf extract’ Biomedical Research International 24159, 1–10.

Maddock, C. & Pariante, C.M. (2001). ‘How does stress affect you? An overview of stress, immunity, depression, and disease’, Epidemiologia Psychiatria Sociale 10(3), 153–162.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences