Ameliorative Effects of Coconut Water on Hematological and Lipid Profiles of Phenylhydrazine-treated Rats
Click to view file (PDF)


Lipid profiles
coconut water

How to Cite

Adeleye, G. S., Odesanmi, E., Ajeigbe, K. O., Omayone, T., Odetola, A., & Sobanke, A. O. (2023). Ameliorative Effects of Coconut Water on Hematological and Lipid Profiles of Phenylhydrazine-treated Rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 38(2), 255–264.


Anaemia is a widespread health issue affecting young children and pregnant women, characterized by reduced red blood cells or haemoglobin levels. Coconut water, rich in nutrients such as L-arginine, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folic acid and fatty acids, is believed to aid in blood formation (hematopoesis). The study aimed to examine the impact of coconut water on hematological indices and lipid profiles in rats with phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. 30 rats were divided into 5 groups: a normal control, phenylhydrazine untreated, coconut water (0.5ml/kg), iron, and ferrous treated groups. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte levels were measured using a Hematology Analyzer. Results showed a significant decrease in LDL and TG levels, and an increase in HDL levels in phenylhydrazine induced anemia compared to the control group. Coconut water administration at 0.5ml/kg reduced LDL, VLDL and TG levels, and increased HDL levels in rats with induced anemia. The study found that coconut water had a positive effect on hematological indices, as it increased hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels in rats with induced anemia. These findings suggest that coconut water may have potential therapeutic benefits for individuals with anemia, particularly in lowering lipid levels and improving blood formation. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these effects and to determine the most effective dosage and duration of treatment. Overall, the study highlights the importance of coconut water as a potentially beneficial alternative treatment for anemia.
Click to view file (PDF)


Abdullatif, B.M., Asiri, N.A.(2012). Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Photosynthesis Pigments, Proline Accumulation and Oil Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) at Flowering and Seed Setting Stages,1(3), 271-284.

Adewoye E O, Salami AT and Emikpe B O. 2012. Chrysophyllum albidum bark on hematological indices in mice with experimental hemorrhagic anemia. Afrircan.Journal Biomedical Research.,15: 85-911.

Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan et al (2004). Summary Report of the National Nutrition Survey, Afghanistan,. Ministry of Public Health of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 2005. Ref 5173.

Amin I, Zamaliah, M. M. and Chin W. F. (2004). Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chemistry, 87(4): 581- 586.

AOAC (1984). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 14th edition, Arlington, Virginia, PP 114-119

Asuqua R O, Ekanem B T, Udoh B P, Mesenbe E P and Ebong E P. 2013. Haematinic potential of Spondias mombin leaf extract in wistar rats. Advance. Bioresearch 4 (2): 53-56.

Balarajan,Y., Ramakrishman, U., Özealtin, E., Shankar, A. H. and Subramanian S.V. (2011). Anaemia in low and middle-income Countries (review). Lancet, 378: 2123-35.

Beck, O.N. (2009). Anaemia: General Considerations. Diagnostic Hematology. Springer verlag London Ltd. London. 7:199-218.

Berger J. (2007). Phenylhydrazine haematotoxicity. Journal of applied Biomedicine; 5:125-130.

Beutler, E. (1969). Drug-induced hemolytic anaemia. Pharmacological Reviews, 21(1), 73-103.

Beutler, E. (2001). Hemolytic anaemia due to chemical and physical agents. Williams Haematology, 6th edition, New York, 629-632.

Brabin BJ, Hakimi M, Pelletier D.(2001). An analysis of anemia and pregnancy- related maternal mortality. Journal of Nutrition, 131:604S–14S.

Brodsky, R.A. and Jones, R.J., (2005). Aplastic anaemia. Lancet. 365(9471):1647-56.

Bunrathep, S. Palanuvej, C. Ruangrungsi, N.(2007). Chemical Compositions and Antioxidative Activities of Essential Oils from Four Ocimum Species Endemic to Thailand, Journal Health Research, 3: 201-206.

Cheesbrough M (2000). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. (part 2). Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.pp. 297-298.

Cheesbrough M (2000). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. (part 2). Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.pp. 297-298

Claro, L. M., Leonart, M. S. S., Comar, S. R., and do Nascimento, A. J. (2006). Effect of vitamins C and E on oxidative processes in human erythrocytes. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 24(6), 531-535.

Crawley J.( 2004). Reducing the burden of anemia in infants and young chil- dren in malaria-endemic countries in Africa: from evidence to action. American Journal Tropical Medicine Hygiene, 71:25–34.

Dacie, J.V. and Lewis S.M. (1995). Pratical Haematology8th edition. London: Churchill Livingstonepp, 37-85.

Diallo A, Gbeassor M, Vovor A, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Aklikokou K. Agbonon A, Abena A, Souza C, Akpagana K. 2008. Effect of Tectona grandis phenylhydrazine induced anemia in rats. Fitoterapia 79: 332-336.

Duff, S. (2008). Types of anemia.

Ganz T, Nemeth E.(2011). Hepcidin and dis- orders of iron metabolism. Annual Rev Medicine, 62:347-60

Hanif, A.M. Al-Maskari, Y.M. Al-Maskari, A.; Al-Shukaili, A. Al-Maskari, Y.A. Al-Sabahi, N.J., (2011). Essential oil composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unexplored Omani basil, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(5), 751-757.

Harper, J.L., Marcel, E.C. and Emmanuel, C. B., (2015). Iron Deficiency Anemia:Practice essentials, Pathophysiology and Etiology.Medscape.

Hassanpouraghdam, B.M. Hassani, A. Shalamzari, S.M.(2010). Menthone and Estragole-rich Essential Oil of Cultivated Ocimum basilicum L. from Northwest Iran, Chemija, 21(1), 59-62., 20113

Janz TG, Johnson RL, Rubenstein SD (November 2013). "Anemia in the emergency department: evaluation and treatment" .Emergency Medicine Practice. 15 (11): 1–15, quiz 15–6.

Jeans-francios, L. and Photis, B.(2009). Pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of anemia. ESH Handbook on Disorder of erythropoiesis, erythrocutes and ion metabolism. 4:108-141.

Juliani H. R. and J. E. Simon,(2002). “Antioxidant activity of basil,” in Trends in New Crops and New Uses, Journal Janic and A. Whipkey, Eds., pp. 575–579, ASHS Press, Alexandria, Va, USA.

Johnkennedy N, Joy D-N, Ndubueze EH, Melvina N, Richard E VO.(2013). Antioxidant and . cardioprotective effect of coconut water against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. J . . Krishna Institute of Medical Science University;2:37-41.

Ketaren KS, Novianry V, Hadi DP. Uji efektivitas(2016). air kelapa muda (Cocos nuciferaL.) . terhadap hemoglobin pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus) sebagai anti anemia setelah . . diinduks siklofosfamid. Skripsi Pendidikan Dokter-Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas . . . . . Tanjungpura.

Karbownik, M., Gitto, E., Lewinski, A., and Reiter, R. J. (2001). Induction of lipid peroxidation in hamster organs by the carcinogen cadmium: amelioration by melatonin. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 17(1), 33-40.

Luangaram, S., Kukongviriyapan, U., Pakdeechote, P., Kukongviriyapan, V., and Pannangpetch, P. (2007). Protective effects of quercetin against phenylhydrazine-induced vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(3), 448-455.

Lv H., Zhang X., Chen X., Xie X., Hu C., Wen C and Jiang K. (2013). Phytochemical compositions and antioxidant and anti-inflammtory activities of crude extracts from Ficus panduraa H. (Moraceae), Evidenced-Based Comlementary Alternat Med., 2(4): 1-8.

Lima EBC, Sousa CNS, Meneses LN, Ximenes NC, Júnior MAS. Cocos nucifera(L.) . (Arecaceae) (2015): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Brazilian Journal of . . Medical Biology Research.;48(11):953-64.

McLean, E., Cogswell, M., Egli, I., Wojdyla, D., and de Benoist, B. (2009). Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO vitamin and mineral nutrition information system, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutrition, 12(04), 444-454.

McMillan, D. C., Powell, C. L., Bowman, Z. S., Morrow, J. D., and Jollow, D. J. (2005). Lipids versus proteins as major targets of pro-oxidant, direct-acting hemolytic agents. Toxicological Sciences, 88(1), 274-283.

Mukherjee, K.L., Ghosh, S., (2012). Medical laboratory Technology. Procedure Manual for Routine Diagnostic Tests. Vol I (Second edition), 263-266.

Murray, R.K., Granner, P. A. Mayes and V.W. Rodwell, eds.( 2000). Red & White Blood Cells. In: Harperss Biochemistry McGraw-Hill, USA; 780-786.

Nakanishi, N., Takeuchi, F., and Tsubaki, M. (2007). Histidine cycle mechanism for the concerted proton/electron transfer from ascorbate to the cytosolic haem b centre of cytochrome b561: a unique machinery for the biological transmembrane electron transfer. Journal of Biochemistry, 142(5), 553-560.

Natasha, S., Yasmin G., 2010. Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital. Proceedings of South African Thalassaemia Association.

Ogbe, R. J., Adoga, G. I., and Abu, A. H. (2010). Antianaemic potentials of some plant extracts on phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia in rabbits. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(8), 680-684.

Okonkwo, J. E., Iyadi, K. C, Effiong, C. O. (2004). Effect of chronic administration of haematological parameters of rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences 19(1-2):10-13.

Oladiji, A.J., Jacob, T.O. and Yakubu, M.T. (2007). Anti-anemic potential of aqueous extract of sorgium bicolor (L). moench stem bark in rats. journal Ethnopharmacology, 111.651-656.

Pasricha SR, Flecknoe-Brown SC, Allen KJ, et al( 2010). Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anaemia: a clinical update. Medical Journal Australia Nov, 1;193(9):525-32.

Pukrittayamee, S. White NJ, Hien TT, Faiz MA, Mokuolu OA, Dondorp AM.(2014). Malaria. Lancet. ;383:723–35.

Purves, W. K., David S., Gordon H. O., H. and Craig H. (2004).Life: The Science of Biology (7th ed.). Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. p. 954. ISBN 0- 7167-9856-5.

Purves, W. K., David S., Gordon H. O., H. and Craig H. (2004).Life: The Science of Biology (7th ed.). Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. p. 954. 0- 7167-9856-5.

Qaseem A, Humphrey LL, Fitterman N, Starkey M, Shekelle P (December 2013). "Treatment of anemia in patients with heart disease: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine . 159 (11): 770–779.

R. S. Deshpande and H. P. Tipnis, “Insecticidal activity of Ocimum basilicum L.,” Pesticides, vol. 11, pp. 11–12, 1977.

Ramakrishnan, U., and Semba, R. D. (2008). Iron deficiency and anaemia. In Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries (pp. 479-505).

Ryan K, Bain BJ, Worthington D, et al (2010). Significant haemoglobinopathies: guide- lines for screening and diagnosis. British Journal Haematology, 149:35-49

S. J. Lee, K. Umano, T. Shibamoto, and K. G. Lee, (2005). “Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties,” Food Chemistry, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 131–137.

Scheinberg, P. and Young, N.S., (2012). How I treat acquired aplastic anemia. Blood. 120(6):1185- 96

Segel, G.B,. Hirsh,M.G. and Feig, S.A. (2002). Managing anemia in pediatric office practice: part 1. Pediatric in review. 23(3):75-83.

Sekarl, K. Thangaraj, S. Babu, S.S. Harisaranraj, R. Suresh, K.,(2009). Phytochemical Constituent and Antioxidant Activity of Extract from the Leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Journal Phytology 1(6), 408-413.

Singh, R. (2015). Medicinal Plants: A review. Journal of plant sciences. 3(1-1):50-55.

status of normal and thalassemic red blood cells. Cytometry Part A, 60(1),

Sullivan, K.M.,Mei, Z., Grummer-Straw, L. and Parvanta, I.(2008). Haemoglobon adjustments to defined anaemia. Tropical medicine and International Health. 13(10):1267-1271.

Turaskar A. 2013. Inhibitory potential of Picrorrhiza kurroa royle ex. extract on phenyhydrazine induced reticulocytosis in rats. Journal Pharmaceutical Clinic Research, 6 (2): 215-216.

Turner MR, Talbot K (2009 ). Functional vitamin B12 deficiency. Practical Neurology. Feb;9(1):37-41.

Unicef. (2002). Prevention and Control of nutritional anaeima: A South Asia priority.

Weiss G, Goodnough LT(2005). Anemia of chronic disease. N England Journal Medicine, 352: 1011-23.

World Health Organization. (2000 ). Phenylhydrazine.World Health Organization.

Yakubu, M.T. Akanji, M.A. and Oladiji AT (2007). Haematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem. Pharmacology. Mag. 3: 34.

Yakubu, M.T. Bilbis,L.S. Lawal, M. and Akanji, M.A. (2003). Evaluation of selected parameters of rat Liver and kidney function following repeated administration

Zamfirache, M.M. Burzo, I. Olteanu, Z. Dunca, S. Surdu, S. Truta, E. et al (2008).., An. St. Univ. Al. L. Cuza. Iasi,4, 35.

Zamfirache, M.M.; Padurariu, C.; Burzo, I.; Olteanu, Z.; Boz, I.; Lamban, C. (2011). Research Regarding the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil of Some Taxa Belonging to the Genus Ocimum, Biologievegetală,31-34.

Zulaikhah ST.( 2017). The role of antioxidant to prevent free radicals in the body. Sains Medical . Journal of Medicine Heal.;8(1)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences