Haematological and biochemical changes in arsenic trioxide-induced toxicity in Wistar rats treated with methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens leaf.
Click to view file (PDF)

How to Cite

Daramola, O.- oluwapo, Oyeyemi, W. A. O., Akinola, A. O. A., & Raji, Y. R. (2022). Haematological and biochemical changes in arsenic trioxide-induced toxicity in Wistar rats treated with methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens leaf.: Effects of methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens leaf on some physiological indices in Wistar rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 37(2), 235–246. https://doi.org/10.54548/njps.v37i2.11


This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical composition and protective effects of methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens leaf (MEPL) in male Wistar rats.

Phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant assay, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and LD50 were determined. Forty male Wistar rats were grouped into eight and orally treated for 54 days as follows: Group 1 (10% tween 80), Group 2 (3 mg/kg As2O3) Groups 3, 4 and 5 (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg MEPL) and groups 6, 7 and 8, (250 mg/kg+As2O3, 500 mg/kg+As2O3 and 1000 mg/kg+As2O3). The animals were sacrificed on day 55 under anaesthesia. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for heamatological studies. Liver concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Liver histology was also assessed.

Flavonoids, tannin, alkaloids, saponin, and anthraquinone were present in MEPL, also, MEPL scavenged 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical (ABTS+). The IC50 of MEPL required to chelate metal was also low. The GC-MS revealed the presence of 24 essential oil. The LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg. Packed cell volume and red blood cell count were significantly reduced in 1000 mg/kg MEPL group, white blood cell count and SOD activity reduced (P<0.05) in 3 mg/kg As2O3 when compared with control but increased in groups co-treated with As2O3 and 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg + As2O3. MDA concentration, AST, ALT and ALP activities increased significantly in 3 mg/kg As2O3 group but decreased (P<0.05) in groups co-treated with As2O3 and 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg.

The methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens leaf in male Wistar rats has antioxidant, hepatoprotective and white blood cell protective effects.

Click to view file (PDF)



Abu El-Saad, A. M., Al-Kahtani, M. A. and Abdel-Moneim, A. M. (2016). N-acetylcysteine and meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid alleviate oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium arsenite in male rats Dovepress 2016 (10): 3425-3434.

Adams, T. B, Gavin, C. L, Waddell, W. J, McGowen, M. M, Cohen, S. M. and Feron, V. J. (2011). The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49: 2471 - 2494.

Aderibigbe, O. R., Odetola, A. A., Oluwole, F. S., Farombi, E. O., Onabanjo, O. O. and Jiboku, O. A. (2011). Antioxidant properties of methanol extract of Parquentina nigrescens in ulcerated rats. Int. J. Trop. Med. 6 (2): 25-29.

Afolabi, O. M., Ajayi, I. R., Olubosede, O, Fayose, R. S. and Sunday, A. G. (2011). Arsenic, Nickel and Iron Concentration levels in Water Samples from Hand-Dug Wells from Ugbe Akoko. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 8 (2): 182 - 185.

Agbor, A. G. and Odetola, A. A., (2001). Hematological studies of Parquetina nigrescens on haemorrhagic anaemic rats. Afri. J. Med. Med. Sci. 30: 105 – 109.

Ahoule, D. G. A., Lalanne, F., Brosillon, s, Mendret, J. and Maiga, A. H. (2015). Arsenic in African waters: A review. Water air soil pollut. 226: 302.

Alvarez, C. N. S. (2012). Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) Bullock. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Eds). Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales. Wageningen, Netherlands, Prota 11: (2).

ATSDR. (2007). Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Publics Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.

Awobajo F. O., Omorodion-Osagie E., Olatunji-Bello, I. I., Adegoke, O. A. and

Adeleke T. I. (2010). Acute oral toxicity and phytochemistry of some West African Medicinal Plants. Nig. Q. J. Hosp. Med. 19(1): 53 - 8.

Ayoola, A. O., Akinloye, O., Oke, J.M., Oguntibeju, O. O. and Odetola, A. A. (2011). Antioxidant activities properties of methanol extract of Parquentina nigrescens in ulcerated rats; Afri. J. Biotechnol. 10 (24): 4920 - 4925.

Bachhav, R. S. and Sambathkumar, R. (2016). Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus Zeylanicus gaertn on experimental animals. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 78 (1): 161 - 166.

Benoit, S. C., Kemp, C. J., Abplanalp, W., Elias, C. F., Herman, J. P, Lefevre, A. L., Migrenne, S, Cruciani-Gulglielacci C., Magan C, Yu F., Niswender K, Irani B. G., Holland W. l. and Clegg D. J. (2009). Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-Ɵ subcellular localization in rodents. J. Clin. Investig. 119 (9): 2577 - 2587.

Bergquist, E. R., Sugden, K. D, Fischer, R. J. and Martin, B. D. (2009). Inhibition by methylated organo‐arsenicals of the respiratory 2‐oxo‐acid dehydrogenases. J. Organomet Chem. 694: 973 – 980.

Bernhoft, A. (2010). A Brief Review on Bioactive Compounds in Plants. In: Bernhoft, A. (Ed). Bioactive Compounds in Plants: Benefits and Risks for Man and Animals. Novus Forlag, Oslo, Norway, pp: 11 - 18.

Bissinger, R., Alzoubi, K., Modicano, P., Honisch, S., Faggio, C., Abed, M. and Lang F. (2014). Effect of saponin on erythrocytes. Int. J. Hematol. 100: 51 – 59.

Blois, M.S. (1958). Antioxidant Determinations by the Use of a Stable Free Radical. Nature, 181: 1199 - 1200.

Bouba, A., Scher, J, Njintang, Y. N, and Mbofung, C. M. F. (2010). Phenolic compounds and radical scavenging potential of twenty Cameroonian spices. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 1.3: 213 - 224.

Bradl, H. (Ed). (2002). Heavy metals in the environment: Origin, interaction and remediation. Elsevier/Academic press, London, pp 269.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E. and Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food Sci. Technol. 28: 25 – 30.

Calleja, M. A., Montero-Meterdez, T., Vieites, J. M., Faus, M. J., Torres, M. I., Gil, A. and Suárez, A. (2013). The antioxidant effect of β-caryophyllene protects rat liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation. Br. J. Nutr. 109: 394 – 401.

Chen, S. C., Wu, Y. C., Chen, Z. W. and Yang, W. C. (2015). Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and therapeutic potential in autoimmune diabetes. Evid. -based Complement. Altern. Med. 2015:1 - 13.

Chu, X.,Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Zhang, Y., Bao, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, J., Guo, H., Yang, F., Luan, Y. and Dong, Y. (2016). Ameliorative effects of tannic acid on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 130(1): 15 - 23.

Cicerale, S, Sinclair, A. J, Conlan, X. A. and Keast, R. S. J. (2009). Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 49: 218 – 236.

Cohen, S. M., Eldan, M., Lewis, A. S., Arnold, L. L. and Beck, B. D. (2006). Methylated arsenicals: the implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment. Cri. Rev. of Toxicol. 36: 99 – 133.

Costa, J. P., De Sousa, Ferreira, P. B., D. P., Jordan, J., Freitas, R. M. (2012). Anticonvulsant effect of phytol in pilocarpine model in mice. Neuroscience Letters 523.2: 115 - 118.

Cullen, W. R. and Reimer, K. J. 1989. Arsenic speciation in the environment. Chem. Rev. 89 4: 713 – 764.

Datte, J., Offoumou, A. M., and Manda, O. M. (1996). Uterotonic effects of hydromethanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens (Periplocaceae) on spontaneous contractile activity in the isolated myometrium of pregnant rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 53: 15 – 20.

Dave, H. and Ledwani, L. (2012). A review on anthraquinones isolated from Cassia species and their applications. Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour. 3.3: 291 - 319.

Egbinola, C. N and Amanambu A. C. (2014). Ground water contamination in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Springerplus 20(3): 448

El-Demerdash, F. M., Yousef, M. I., Mokhtar, I. and Radwan, F. M. E. (2009). Ameliorating effect of curcumin on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in different rat organs. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47: 249 – 254.

Elfadil, A. G., Sabahelkhier, M. K., Rayan, M. Y., Daa, M. O., Nagla, A. H. and Israa, S. B. (2013). Effect of Tannin and Plant Tannins on some Organs and Physic-Chemical Characters of Diabetic Wistar Rats. Int. J. Adv. Res. 1 (10): 165 - 170.

Erah, P. O., Asonye, C. C. and Okhamafe, A. O. (2003). Response of Trypanosoma brucei brucei-induced anaemia to a commercial herbal preparation. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2 (9): 307– 311.

Fattovich, G., Olivari, N., Pasino, M., D’Onofrio, M., Martone, E. and Donato, F. (2008). Long –term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in Caucasian patients: mortality after 25 years. Gastroenterol. 57: 84-90.

Fernandes, E. S., Medeiros, R., Passos, G. F., Da Cunha, F. M., Campos, M. M., Ferreira, J., Pianowski, L. F. and Calixto, J. B. (2007). Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of cordial verbenacea. Eu. J. Pharmacol. 569(3): 228 - 36.

Finney, D, J. (1952). Probit analysis. J. Inst. Actuar. 78 (3): 388-390.

Flora, S. J. S., Bhadauria, S., Kannan, G. M. and Singh, N. (2007). Arsenic induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant supplementation during chelation: A review. J. Environ. Biol. 28 (2): 333 - 347.

Florea, A. M., Dopp, E., Obe, G. and Rettenmeier, A. W. (2004). Genotoxicity of organometallic species. In: Hirner, A. V., Emons, H. (Eds). Organic metals and metalloid species in the Environment: Analysis, Distribution, Processes, and toxicological evaluation. Springer-verlag, Heidelberg, pp 205 - 219.

Halpin, R. A., El-Naggar, S. F. Vyas, K. P. and Jerina, D. M. (1984). Metabolism and hepatotoxicity of the naturally occurring benzo[b]pyran precocene I. Chem. Biol. Interact. 48 (3): 297 - 315.

Hayate, J., Emadadul, H. M., Sheikh, A. and Shreesh, K. O. (2016). Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors activation protects against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation associated doperminergic neurodegeneration in Totenone model of Parkinson’s disease. Front. Neurosci. 10: 321.

Iwu, M. M. 1993. Hand book of African Medicinal Plants. CRC press, Boca Raton, pp 464.

Johnson-Delaney, C. A. (2008). Exotic Animal Companion Medicine Handbook for Veterinarians. Zoological Education Network, Florida, pp 18/98.

Kannan, G., Tripathi, N., Shashi, D. N., Gupta, M and Flora S. (2001). Toxic effects of Arsenic (III) on some hematopoietic and central nervous system variables in rats and guinea pigs. J. Toxicol.Clin. Toxicol. 39 (7): 675 - 682.

Karasek, F. W. and Clement, R. E. (1988). Basic Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Techniques, Elsevier Sience Publishers Amsterdam, pp 201.

Kim, Y. J., Kim, T. W., Kwon, I. C., Chung, H., Sung, H. C. and Jeong, S.Y. (2003). The effects of serum on the stability and the transfection activity of the cationic lipid emulsion with various oils. Int. J. Pharmacol. 252: 241 - 252.

Kim, M. H., Lee, J., Yoo, D. S., Lee, Y. G., Byeon, S. E., Hong, E. K. and Cho, J. Y. (2009). Protective effects of stress-induced liver damage by saponin fraction from Codonopsis lanceolata. Arch. Pharm. Res. 32: 1441.

Klauke, A. L, Pradier, B, Racz, I, Zimmer. A. M., Markert, A. and Gertsch, J. (2014). The cannabinoid CB 2 receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. l: 608 - 620.

Klibet, F., Khiari, M., Boumendjel, A., Abdennour., C. El Feki, A. and Messarah, M. (2016). Oxidative stress-related liver dysfunction by sodium arsenite: Alleviation by Pistacia lentiscus oil. Pharm. Biol. 54 (2): 354 - 363.

Kumar, A. R., Rathinam, K. M. and Prabhakar, G. (2007). Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants of Asclepiadaceae family. Asian J of Microbiol. Biotechnol. Envron. Sci. 1: 177-180

Kyle, R. A., and Pearse, G. L. (1965). Haematological aspects of arsenic intoxication. N. Engl. J. Med 273: 18 - 23.

Leal, A., Davi, D., Laynne, H. C. L., Nunes, L. C. C. and Jose A. D. L. (2015). Incorporation of tannic acid in formulations for topical use in wound healing: A technological prospecting. Afr. J. of Pharm. Pharmacol. 9 (26): 662-674.

Liu, Y., Xu, X., Bi, D., Wang, X., Zhang, X., Dai, H., Chen, S., Zhang. W. (2009). Influence of squalene feeding on plasma leptin, testosterone and blood pressure in rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 129 (2): 150-153.

Mao, L., Henderson, G. and Dong, S. L. (2010). Studies of precocene I, precocene II and biogenic amines on formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) presoldier/soldier formation. J. Entomol. Sci. 45: 27-34.

McGinty, D., Letizia, C. S. and Api A. M. (2010). Fragrance material review on phytol. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 (3): 59.

Messarah, M., Boumendjel, A., Klibet, F., Bouzerna, N., Abdennour, C., Salah, M., Boulakoud, M. S. and El Feki A. (2012). Hepatoprotective role and antioxidant capacity of selenium on arsenic-induced liver injury in rats. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol 64: 167–174.

Miliauskas, G., Venskutonis, P. R., & Van Beek, T. A. (2004). Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem. 85: 231 – 237.

Miller L. C. and Tainter, M. L. (1944). Estimation of LD50 and its error by means of log-probit graph paper. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 57: 261.

Misra, H. P. and Fridovich, I. (1972). The generation of superoxide radical auto-oxidation of hemoglobin. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 6960 - 6962.

Nandwana, N. K., Singh, R. K., Patel, P. S., Dhiman, S, Saini, H. K., Jha, P. N and Kumar, A. (2018). Design and synthesis of Imidazo/Benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline Derivatives and Evaluation of their antimicrobial activity. ACS Omega. 3(11): 16338 - 16346.

Ngo, T. V., Scarlett, C. J., Bowyer, M. C., Ngo, P.D. Vuong, Q. V. (2016). Impact of different extraction of solvents on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity from root of salacia chinensis L. J. Food Qual. 2017: 1 - 8.

NRC (National Research Council). (1999). Arsenic in drinking water. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Nriagu, J. O., and Azcue, J. M. (1990). Food contamination with arsenic in the environment. Adv.Environ. Sci. Technol. 23: 121-143.

Organization for Economic Development. (2001): OECD Guideline for the testing of chemical. Acute oral toxicity and acute toxicity class method. Test guideline 423: 1-14.

Omoboyowa, A. D., Igara, E. C. Ogunneye, L. A. and Otuchristian, G. (2016). Phytochemical screening and haematological studies of Parquetina nigrescens ethanol and chloroform leaf extracts in normal albino rats. Afri. J. Pharm. Pharmacog. 10.10: 164-169.

Parekh., J. and Chanda, S. V. 2007. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical studies on twelve spicies of indian medicinal plants. Afri, J. Biomed. Res. 10: 175-181.

Pascual, G., Mejetta, S., Avgustinova, A., Castellanos, A., Martin, M., Attolini, C. S., Berenguer, A., Prats, N., Toll, A., Hueto, J. A., Bescos, C., Di Croce, L. and Benitah, S. A. (2017). Targeting metastasis-initiating cells through the fatty acid receptor CD36. Nature 541(7635): 41-45.

Popa, I., Niță, S., Băbeanu, N. E. and Popa, O. 2014. Squalene – Natural Resources and applications. Farmacia. 62 (5): 838-862.

Prieto, P., Pineda, M. and Aguilar M. 1999. Spectrophotometric Quantitation of Antioxidant Capacity through the Formation of a Phosphomolybdenum Complex: Specific Application to the Determination of Vitamin E1. Anal. Biochem. 269: 337–341.

Raji, y., Akinsomisoye, O. S., Salman, T. M. (2005). Antispermatogenic effect of Morinda Lucida Extract in male rats. Asian J. Androl. 7(4): 405-410.

Re, R., Proteggente, A., Pellegrini, N., Yang, M. Pannala, A. and Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26: 1231–1237.

Reitman, S., Frankel, S. (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 56-63.

Rice-Evans, C., Omorphos, C. S, Baysal, E. (1986). Sickle cell membrane and oxidative damage. Biochem. J. 237: 265-269.

Rousselot, P., Marolleau, J. P., Labaume, S., Noguera, M. H., Larghero, J. and Brouet, J. C. (1999). Arsenic trioxide and melarsoprol induce apoptosis in plasma cell lines and plasma cells from myeloma patients. Cancer Res. 59: 1041– 048.

Saba, A. B., Oyagbami, A. A., and Azeez O. L (2010). Antidiabetic and haematinic effect of Parquentina nigrescens on alloxan induced type-1 diabetes and normocytic normochromic anaemia in Wistar rats. Afri. Health Sci. 10 (3): 276-282

Saikia, D., Chanda, D., Parihar, S., Ojha, S. and Kumar, J. K. (2010). Antitubercular potential of some semisynthetic analogues of phytol. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20: 508-512.

Santos, C. C. D.M. P., de Oliveira, G. A. L., Salvadori, M. S., de Sousa, D. P., Costa, J. P., Freita, R. M. and de Almeida, R. N. (2013). Antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of phytol in vivo and in vitro models. Neurosci. J. 2013: 1 - 9.

Scheindlin, S. 2005. The duplicitous nature of inorganic arsenic. Mol. Interv. 5: 60 –64.

Shittu, S. T., Oyeyemi, W. A., Shittu S. A. and Lasisi, T. J. (2018). Ucimum Gratissimum inhibits glycogen phosphorylase activity without changes in Hepatic nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-kB) and inducuble nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Niger. Med. Pract. 73 (1-2): 10 - 17.

Silva, R. O., Damasceno, S. R. B., Sousa, F. B. M., Carvalho, N. S., Oliveira, F. R. M. A., Sousa, D. P., Aragao, K. S., Silva, V. N. G., Barbosa, A. L. R., Freitas, R. M. and Medeiros J V. R. (2014). Phytol, a diterpene alcohol, inhibits the inflammatory response by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol. 28: 455-464.

Singh, N. and Rajini, P. (2004). Free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extractof potato peel. Food Chem. 85 (4): 611-16.

Sinha, A. K. (1972). Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal. Biochem.47: 389-394.

Slinkard, K. and Singleton, V. L. (1977). Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual methods. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 28: 49-55.

Song, Y. and Cho, S.K. (2015). Phytol Induces Apoptosis and ROS-Mediated Protective Autophagy in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma AGS Cells. Biochemistry Anal. Biochemistry 4: 211.

Spanova, M., and Daum, G. (2011). Squalene – biochemistry, molecular biology, process

biotechnology, and applications. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol : 1-22.

Thomas, N. (2007). “Synthesis of vitamin E”In Litwack, Gerald. Vitamin E. Vitam. Horm. 76: 155-202.

Thompson W. R. (1947). Use of moving averages and interpolation to estimate median-effective dose. I. Fundamental formulas, estimation of error and relation to other methods. Vitam. Horm. 11: 115-145

Tjan, T. S. L. (2001). Squalene the miraculous essential omega 2 oil. Secrets from the sea, published on-line Natural Sources for Health. Sci. Life.

Trease, G. and Evans, W. C. (1989). A text book of pharmacognosy. Bacilluere Tinal Ltd, London.

Verma, A. R., Vijayakumar M., Chandra, M. S. and Chandana, R. V. (2009). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47 (9): 2196-2201.

Wall, M. E., McClenne, M. L., Eddy, C. R., and Klump M. E. (1952). Detection of estimation of steroid sapogenins in plant tissue. Anal. Chem. 24: 137.

Wall, M. E., Krewson, C. E., Krider, M. M., Wilaman, J. J., Edyy, C. F., Cordel, G. S. and Gentry, H. S. (1954). Steroidal sapogenins VII’. Agric. Res. Serv. Circ. Aic 363: 17.

Yasmin, S., Stuti, M, Das J., Rani, M. and D’Souza D. (2011). Sub Chronic Toxicity of Arsenic Trioxide on Swiss Albino Mice. Int. J. Environ. Sci. 1.7

Zhang, Z., Gao, L., Cheng, Y., Jiang, J., Chen, Y., Jiang, H., Yu, H., Shan, A. and Cheng, B. 2014. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014: 1-7.

Zhao, X., Cong, X., Zheng, L., Xu, L., Yin, L. and Peng, J. 2012. Dioscin, a natural steroid saponin, shows remarkable protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol. Lett. 214 (1): 69-80.

Zhilen, J., Mengeheng, T. and Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoids contents

in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem.

: 555–559.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences