Biochemical Studies on the Colorectal Tissues of Wistar Rats Treated with Methanol Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)
Click to view file (PDF)

How to Cite

Agu, K. C., & Olubodun, S. . O. (2022). Biochemical Studies on the Colorectal Tissues of Wistar Rats Treated with Methanol Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop). Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 37(1), 127–135.


Annona muricata (AMC), is a tropical plant species of the Annonaceae family known for its medicinal uses in ameliorating and/or protecting several organs and tissues in the body. In this study we elucidated the influence of the methanol extracts of AMC leaf and stem bark on the biochemical and histological integrity of the colorectum. Different doses (100, 200, 400, 600, and 800mg of extract/kg body weight) of methanol extracts of the leaves and stembark were orally administered to adult male Wistar rats of average weight (100 - 150 g) for 28 days. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed and colorectal tissues harvested for analyses. Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPases), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities, and tissue protein (TP) concentration, were evaluated by colorimetric method using appropriate test kits. The results in the colorectal tissue analysed showed that total ATPase, LDH and G6PD (energy markers) activities increased significantly in the groups which received methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of AMC when compared with control. However, a general decrease was observed in TP and Na+/K+-ATPase activity but there was a twist in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in stem bark doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg which showed significant increases in dose dependent manner when compared with the control. Even though G6PD activity showed fluctuating patterns for both extracts, the highest dose (800mg/kg) reflected the most significant increase when compared with the control. The histology confirmed the toxicological results by the biochemical parameters. Under the condition of this study, we inferred that the methanol leaf and stem-bark extracts of AMC may significantly influence the enzymes by reducing and increasing total ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase activities depending on the doses and administration should therefore depend on the desired outcome.
Click to view file (PDF)


Adam-Vizi V. and Seregi M. (1982). Biochem. Pharmacol. 31, 2231-2236.

Agu, K.C., Okolie, N.P., Eze, G.I., Anionye, J.C., Falodun, A. (2017a). Phytochemical analysis, toxicity profile and hemo-modulatory properties of Annona muricata (Soursop). Egyptian Journal Hematology 42(1): 36-44.

Agu, K.C., Okolie, N.P., Falodun, A. and Engel-Lutz, N. (2017b). In vitro anticancer assessments of Annona muricata fractions and in vitro antioxidant profile of fractions and isolated acetogenin (15-acetyl guanacone). Journal of Cancer Research and Practice 5(2):53-66.

Agu, K.C. (2016). Bioactivity-guided screening of Annona muricata Linn (Soursop) for in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. Doctoral thesis, Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Nigeria 148-185.

Agu, K.C. and Okolie, N.P. (2017a). In vivo anti-neoplastic properties of Annona muricata on Cycas - treated Adult Wistar Rats. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica – Drug Research 74(6): 1813 - 1826.

Agu, K.C. and Okolie, N.P. (2017b). Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop). Food Science and Nutrition 5:1029–1036.

Chen H. and Quallis R.G. (2003). Anaerobic metabolism in roots of the seedlings of invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium. Environment of Experimental Botany, 50: 29-40.

Fielding, D., and Matheron, G. (1991). The tropical agriculturist: Rabbits. CTA and Macmillan, London 1991.

Guyton A. C., Hall J. E. (2016). Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th Edition.

Kulkarni S. S. and Chavan P. D. (2013). Study of Some Aspects of Anaerobic Metabolism in Roots of Finger Millet and Rice Plants Subjected to Waterlogging Stress. International Journal of Botany, 9: 80-85.

Liu, Y., R. Wu, Q. Wan, G. Xie and Bi Y. (2007). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide-involved defense against oxidative stress under salt stress in red kidney bean roots. Plant Cell Physiol., 48: 511-522.

Moghadamtousi, S.Z., Goh, B.H., Chan, C.K., Shabab, T.,and Kadir, H.A. (2013).Biological activities and phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla king. Molecules 18: 10465–10483.

Müller, M., Canfora, E. E. and Blaak, E. E. (2018). Gastrointestinal Transit Time, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health: Modulation by Dietary Fibers. Nutrients. 10(3): 275.

Ngueguim, T. F, Mbatchou A, Donfack J.H, Dzeufiet D.D.P, Gounoue K.R, Djouwoug N.C, Kamtchouing P. and Dimo T. (2016). Dichrocephala integrifolia (linn. f.) O. Kuntze (Asteraceae) leaves aqueous extract prevents ethanol-induced liver damage in rats. Pharmacologia, 7: 337-343.

Olubodun, S. O. and Eriyamremu, G. E. (2020). Activity of Lactate Dehydrogenase and the Levels of Glucose and Starch in Vigna unguiculata Seedlings Exposed to Different Fractions of Crude Oil. Bioscience Research Journal. 32(1): 9-16.

Olubodun, S. O. and Eriyamremu, G. E. (2014). Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities of Zea Mays and Vigna unguiculata Exposed to Different Crude Oil Fractions. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review 4(6): 505-516.

Olubodun, S. O. and Eriyamremu, G. E. (2015). Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Carbohydrate in Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Crude Oil. Journal of Biological Sciences, 15: 150-155.

Pongri, A., and Igbe, I. (2017). Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae) in rats. Herb. Pol. 63(3): 35-47.

Qazi AK, Siddiqui, JA, Jahan R, Chaudhary S, Walker LA, Sayed Z, Jones DT, Batra SK and Macha MA. (2018). Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers. Carcinogenesis. 39(4): 522–533. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgy024

Rauchova, H., Ledivinkova J, Kalous M, Drahota Z. (1995). The effect of lipid peroxidation on the activity of various membrane-bound ATPases. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 27: 251–255.

Samir D, Khaoula Z, Safa G, Yahia K. and Anouar F. (2017). Protective effects of Aristolochia longa and Aquilaria malaccensis against lead induced acute liver injury in rats. J. Acute Dis. 6:193-7

Senthil-Nathan S, Kalaivani K, Murugan K. and Chung PG. (2005). The toxicity and physiological effect of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) the rice leaffolder. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 81: 113-122.

Suanarunsawat, T., Ayutthaya, W.D.N., Songsak, T., and Rattanamahaphoom, J (2009).: Anti-lipidemic actions of essential oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol diet. JAB 7: 45–53. .

Vijayalakshmi, T., Muthulakshmi, V., and Sachdanandam, P. (2000). Toxic studies on biochemical parameters carried out in rats with Serankottai nei, a siddha drug-milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut. J. Ethnopharm. 69: 9-15.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences