omparative study of electrocardiogram among male hypertensive students attending University Health Services and normotensive students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Hypertension, blood pressure; Electrocardiogram, Left Bundle Branch Block


Background: Worldwide cardiovascular diseases account for approximately 17 million deaths
annually, these complications. Hypertension is responsible for at least 9.4 million deaths every
year globally. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple, convenient, economical, and suitable test
for screening a relatively large population. The study was aimed at determining
electrocardiographic patterns among male hypertensive students attending university health
services and normotensive students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Methods: A
total of 109 participants (18 – 53) years were recruited, among which were53 hypertensive and
56 non-hypertensive participants. Information on subject’s blood pressure, anthropometric
measurements and electrocardiogram were recorded. Results: The result showed a significant
higher mean age 35.60 ± 7.26 years, mean weight73.28 ± 12.06 kg, mean body mass index
(BMI) 25.23 ± 5.56 kg/m2, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) 141.17 ± 14.32 mmHg, mean
diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 89.74 ± 7.36 mmHg and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP)
107.27 ± 9.68 mmHg among hypertensive subjects as compared to control subjects. The
calculated ECG of higher mean heart rate (HR) (73.96 ± 13.77), mean QTc interval (392.11 ±
22.56),mean T wave (281.43 ± 119.45), and lower mean QRS axis (39.79 ± 29.22) among
hypertensive subjects as compared to control subjects and some of the ECG abnormalities that
were detected include; sinus tachycardia (16%), sinus bradycardia (2%), atrial fibrillation
(8%), left bundle branch block (2%), left axis deviation (8%), left ventricular hypertrophy
(40%), ST elevation (2%), ST depression (12%) and T wave inversion (24%). Conclusion:
This study shows that male hypertensive subjects of ABU Zaria had higher HR, QTc interval,
T wave and lower QRS axis. Most frequently found ECG abnormalities were left ventricular
hypertrophy, T wave inversion, ST depression, sinus tachycardia, left axis deviation and atrial
fibrillation. The students should therefore routinely check the status of cardiovascular
performance through electrocardiogram recording.