Glycaemic response and insulin index in apparently healthy male adults following ingestion of some Nigerian meals

Abstract

Background: There are available reports on the glycaemic indices (GI) of some local Nigerian diets but there is the dearth of information on insulinogenic responses to the diets which are also vital in chronic diseases prediction and management. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the GI, glycaemic load (GL) and insulin index (II) of selected commonly consumed Nigerian diets.

Materials and Methods: Twelve apparently healthy males were recruited into this randomized cross over study. Meal tolerance testing (MTT) was carried out on each participant, on separate days, after an overnight fast using 50g available carbohydrate of each of yam flour paste (amala), wheat paste and cooked cowpea with 50g of glucose serving as the reference meal. Venous blood was collected at 0 minute and then postprandially at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes to determine the plasma levels of glucose and insulin. Thereafter, the area under the curve (AUC) of each meal was calculated using trapezoidal rule and then, GI, GL and II were calculated using appropriate formula. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Wheat meal had the lowest GI, GL and II amongst the three meals. Also, the glucose mean area under the curve (AUCG) of wheat was significantly lower compared with the reference meal. There were no significant differences in AUCG of amala and cowpea meal when compared with the reference meal. Furthermore, the insulin mean AUC (AUCI ) of wheat meal was significantly lower when compared with the reference meal and cowpea meal.

Conclusion: Wheat meal had the lowest GI, lowest glycaemic response and provoked less insulin release compared with amala and cowpea meal. Therefore, consumption of whole, unprocessed wheat meal might be helpful in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Glycamic response, insulin index, Nigerian meals, wheat.

Résumé
Contexte: Il existe des rapports disponibles sur les indices glycémiques (IG) de certains régimes locaux nigérians, mais il y a une pénurie d’informations sur les réponses insulinogeniques aux régimes, qui sont également essentielles dans la prévision et la gestion des maladies chroniques. Par conséquent, cette étude a été réalisée pour déterminer l’IG, la charge glycémique (CG) et l’index d’insuline (II) de certains régimes nigérians consommés couramment.

Matériels et méthodes: Douze mâles apparemment en bonne santé ont été recrutés dans cette étude croisée randomisée. Un test de tolérance au repas (TTR) a été effectué sur chaque participant, après un jeûne de nuit, en utilisant 50g de glucides disponibles de pâte de farine d’igname (amala), de pâte de blé et de niébé cuite avec 50g de glucose comme repas de référence. Le sang veineux a été recueilli à 0 minute, puis de manière postprandiale à 30, 60, 90 et 120 minutes pour déterminer les taux plasmatiques de glucose et d’insuline. Par la suite, l’aire sous la courbe (ASC) de chaque repas a été calculée en utilisant la règle trapézoïdale et ensuite, GI, CG et II ont été calculés en utilisant la formule appropriée. P <0,05 a été considéré comme statistiquement significatif.

Résultats: Le repas de blé avait l’IG, CG et II plus bas parmi les trois repas. De plus, la surface moyenne du glucose sous la courbe (ASCG) du blé était significativement plus faible par rapport au repas de référence. Il n’y avait pas de différences significatives dans l’ASCG de l’amala et de la farine de niébé par rapport au repas de référence. De plus, l’ASC moyenne (AUCI ) de l’insuline de la farine de blé était significativement plus faible que celle du repas de référence et de la farine de niébé.

Conclusion: Le repas de blé a présenté la plus faible IG, la réponse glycémique la plus faible et a provoqué moins de libération d’insuline comparativement à l’amala et au niébé. Par conséquent, la consommation de farine de blé entière non transformée pourrait être utile dans la prévention et la gestion du diabète sucré.

Mots-clés: Réponse glycémique, indice d’insuline, repas nigérian, blé

Correspondence: Dr. K.S. Akinlade, Endocrinology/Metabolic Research Unit, Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail|: ksakinlade@yahoo.co.uk, ksakinlade@comui.edu.ng

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