With consistent evolutions in the menace of antimicrobial-resistance, there is an ongoing need to continuously grow in understanding the developmental strategies of drug resistant pathogens and possible reservoirs of the resistance determinants. Resistance against tetracycline, a first line anti-cholera drug choice has been reported. With acquisition of resistance in Vibrio, thought to be associated with exchange of extrachromosomal genetic material from closely related species, this study therefore explores the potential role of environmental Vibrio from Rivers State, Nigeria as reservoirs of tetracycline-resistance genes. Soil samples were collected from two dumpsites in Rivers State, Nigeria and processed for the isolation and identification of Vibrio sp according to standard protocols. Identified Vibrio isolates were then screened for the presence of four tetracycline-resistance determinants (tetA, tetB, tetG and tetM) following DNA extraction by boiling. A total of 29.2% of isolates (14/48) possessed at least one of the four tet genes assayed for. For specific occurrence, tetB was the most occurring of the four (14.6%) and tetG the least occurring (2.1%). Both dumpsites had a similar level of occurrence of the tet genes (26.9% and 31.8%), but there was a higher representation (54.5%) of tet genes in isolates obtained from the subsoil than the surface (7.7%). Results indicate a potential role of these environmental Vibrio sp. as reservoirs of tetracycline-resistance genes. The presence of the tetM gene associated with a conjugative transposon adds more risk to this potential. More studies are needed to proffer a better understanding of the risks and relationships present
Ahmadi M. H. (2021). Global status of tetracycline resistance among clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 10, 115.
Adesiyan I. M., Bisi-Johnson M. A., Okoh A. I. (2022). Incidence of antibiotic resistance genotypes of Vibrio species recovered from selected freshwaters in Southwest Nigeria. Sci Rep. 2022; 12(1): 1-11.
Das B., Verma J., Kumar P., Ghosh A., Ramamurthy T. (2019). Antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae: Understanding the ecology of resistance genes and mechanisms. Vaccine. 2020 Feb 29;38 Suppl 1:A83-A92. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.06.031. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31272870.
Gxalo O., Digban T. O., Igere B. E., Olapade O. A., Okoh A. I., Nwodo U. U. (2021). Virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics of Vibrio isolates from rustic environmental freshwaters. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2021; 19(11): 732001
Kar S. K., Pal B. B., Khuntia H. K., Achary K. G., Khuntia, C. P. (2015). Emergence and spread of tetracycline resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant during 2010 cholera epidemic in the tribal areas of Odisha, India. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 33, pp.45-49.
Jain M., Kumar P., Goel A. K. (2016). Emergence of tetracycline resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa with classical ctxB gene from a cholera outbreak in Odisha, Eastern India. Journal of pathogens, 2016.
Khany A., Farzami M. R. (2016). Determination of tetracycline resistance genes in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba strains isolated from outbreaks occurred in Iran in 2013. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 5(5), pp.121-126.
Rijal N., Acharya J., Adhikari S., Upadhaya B. P., Shakya G., Kansakar P., Rajbhandari P. (2019). Changing epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Vibrio cholerae: AMR surveillance findings (2006–2016) from Nepal. BMC infectious diseases, 19(1), 1-8.
CDC (2023). laboratory methods for the diagnosis of Vibrio cholera. https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/pdf/laboratory-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-vibrio-cholerae-chapter-5.pdf (Accessed 28th January, 2023).
Cheesbrough M. (2006). District laboratory practice in tropical countries Part II. Cambridge University Press, UK 2006
Cowan S. T., Steel K. J. (1993). Manual for the identification of medical bacteria, 3rd edition. London: Cambridge University Press, UK 1993.
Ajuga M. U., Otokunefor K., Agbagwa O. E. (2021). Antibiotic resistance and ESBL production in Escherichia coli from various sources in Aba metropolis, Nigeria. Bulletin National Research Centre. 2021; 45(1): 1-9.
Jurado-Rabadan S., de la Fuente R., Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria A. J., Orden A. J., de Vries L. E., Agerso Y. (2014). Detection and linkage to mobile genetic elements of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs. BMC Vet Res 2014;10.1186/1746-6148-10-155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105395/
Olowe O. A., Idris O. J., Taiwo S. S. ((2013). Prevalence of tet genes mediating tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Osun State, Nigeria. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013;3(2):135‐140.
Al-Bahry S., Al-Sharji N., Yaish M., Al-Musharafi S., Mahmound I. (2016). Diversity of Tetracycline Resistant Genes in Escherichia coli from Human and Environmental sources. The Open Biotechnol J 2016;10:289–300.
Aminov R. I., Garrigues-Jeanjean N., Mackie R. I. (2001). Molecular ecology of tetracycline resistance: development and validation of primers for detection of tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins. J Appl Environ Microbiol 2001;67(1):22-32. doi:10.1128/AEM.67.1.22-32.2001.
Jeamsripong S., Thaotumpitak V., Anuntawirun S., Roongrojmongkhon N., Atwill E. R., Hinthong W. (2022). Molecular Epidemiology of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Profiles of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. Isolated from Coastal Seawater for Aquaculture. Antibiotics, 11(12), p.1688.
Tramuta C., Decastelli L., Bianchi D. M., Boteva C., Pitti M., Masotti C., Serracca L., Battistini R. (2021). First Detection of Ampicillin Resistant Gene (blaTEM) Isolated from Vibrio species in Northern Italy. Austin J Public Health Epidemol. 2021; 8(5): 1114.
Thiang E. L., Chai C. Y. S., Lee C. W., Takada H., Wang A. J., Chai L. C., Bong C. W. (2022). Tetracycline Resistance and Prevalence of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Bacteria from Marine Aquaculture Farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 51(2) (2022): 345-357 http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2022-5102-02
Morita D., Takahashi E., Morita M., Ohnishi M., Mizuno T., Miyoshi S. I., Dutta D., Ramamurthy T., Chowdhury G., Mukhopadhyay A. K., Okamoto K. (2020). Genomic characterization of antibiotic resistance‐encoding genes in clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae non‐O1/non‐O139 strains from Kolkata, India: generation of novel types of genomic islands containing plural antibiotic resistance genes. Microbiology and Immunology, 64(6), pp.435-444.
Okoh A. I., Igbinosa E. O. (2010). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. BMC Microbiol. 2010; 10(1): 1-6.
Faja O. M., Abd Sharad A., Younis K. M., Alwan M. G., Mohammed B. J., Ahmad A. (2019). Isolation, detection of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes, plasmid profile, and molecular typing among Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated in Malaysian seawater from recreational beaches and fish. Veterinary world, 12(7), p.1140.
Hu Y., Li F., Zheng Y., Jiao X., Guo L. (2020). Isolation, molecular characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from aquatic products in the southern Fujian Coast, China. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30(6), 856–867. https://doi. org/10.4014/jmb.2001.01005.
Tuckman M., Petersen P. J., Howe A. Y., Orlowski M., Mullen S., Chan K., Bradford P. A., Jones C. H. (2007). Occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes among Escherichia coli isolates from the phase 3 clinical trials for tigecycline. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 51(9), pp.3205-3211.
Gholami-Ahangaran M., Karimi-Dehkordi M., Miranzadeh-Mahabadi E., Ahmadi-Dastgerdi A. (2021). The frequency of tetracycline resistance genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy and diarrheic pet birds. Iran J Vet Res. 2021 Fall; 22(4):337-341. doi: 10.22099/ijvr.2021.38454.5592. PMID: 35126542; PMCID: PMC8806167.
Ahangaran M. G., Zinsaz P., Pourmahdi O., Ahmadi-Dastgerdi A., Ostadpour M., Soltani M. (2022). Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Biofilm of Drinking Water System in Poultry Farms. Acta Veterinaria Eurasia, 48(1), pp.64-69.
Perewari D. O., Otokunefor K., Agbagwa O. E. (2022). Tetracycline-Resistant Genes in Escherichia coli from Clinical and Nonclinical Sources in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Microbiology, 2022.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2023 African Journal of Biomedical Research