One of the public health challenges that have gripped the universe is the rapid spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Unprotected heterosexual intercourse remains central to HIV transmission in Nigeria, as in most of sub-Saharan Africa and female sex workers play a crucial role in the spread of the virus through unsafe sex practices. Globally, sex workers make up 9% of the total number of new HIV infections and while HIV prevalence among the population in Nigeria has been declining from its peak of 5.8% in 2001 to 1.4% in 2018, prevalence among sex workers remains high at 14.4%% A descriptive cross-sectional study of 81 Female Sex Workers out of the estimated total population of 360 FSWs based in brothels only, in Sagamu local government was selected. The majority 63(77.8%) of the respondents engaged in unsafe sex practices. The majority 65(80.3%) had a low to moderate risk perception of STI/HIV/AIDs. Almost half participants 36(44.4%) had the erroneous belief that they could not contract HIV. Statistically significant association was found between unsafe sexual practices and previous history of STIs among FSWs (p = 0.021), reported current HIV status (p = 0.019), alcohol use (p = 0.004), and binge alcohol (p = 0.037). Unsafe sex practice is highly prevalent among female sex workers in Sagamu with low to moderate risk perception for HIV/AIDs / STI.
Adeneye, AK., Adeneye, AA., Mafe, MA., & Adeiga, AA. (2013) Pattern of condom use and perceived risk of HIV infection among female sex workers in selected Brothels in Ogun State, Nigeria. Int J Public Health Epidemiol. 2(5):90– 100.
Ahoyo, A.B., Alary, M., Méda, H., Ndour, M., Batona, G & Bitéra, R. (2007). Female sex workers in Benin, 2002: Behavioural survery, HIV and other STI screening. Sante, 17(3), 143-51
Ankomah, A., Omoregie, G., Akinyemi, Z., Anyanti, J., Ladipo, O., & Adebayo, S. (2011). HIV related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria. HIV/AIDS-Research and Palliative Care 3, pp. 93-100
Baba-Manu, A., Nwankwo, E., & Wende, G. (2010). HIV modes of transmission in Benue State: an analysis of the distribution of new infections. Abuja, Nigeria: Enhancing Nigeria Response to HIV/AIDS Project.
Braunstein, S. L., Ingabire, E., Kestelyn, AU., Uwizire, L., Mwamarangwe, J.,& Ntirushwa. (2011). High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of rwandan female sex workers. sexually transmitted diseases 38:385–394.
Bruce, E., Bauai, L., Sapuri, M., Kaldor, K., Fairley, K., & Keogh, L. (2011). HIV knowledge, risk perception and safer sex practices among female sex workers. Int j Womens Health. 3: 53-61 doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S14669
Cochran, W. G. (1985) Sampling Techniques, 3rd Ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Cook, RL., Comer, DM., Wiesenfeld, HC., Chang, CC., & Tarter, R. (2006). Alcohol and drug use and related disorders: An under recognized health issue among adolescents and young adults attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sex Transm Dis 33: 565–570
Cook. RL., Clark, DB. (2005). Is there an association between alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted diseases? A systematic review. Sex Transm Dis 32: 156– 164. 12.
Cusik, L. (2006). Widening the harm reduction agenda: From drug use to sex work. International Journal of Drug Policy, 17, 3-11.
Federal Ministry of Health. (2010). National HIV seroprevalence sentinel survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: Department of Public Health; 2011.
Fisher, JC., Cook, PA., & Kapiga, SH. (2010). Alcohol use before sex and HIV risk: situational characteristics of protected and unprotected encounters among high risk African women. Sex Transm Dis 37: 571–578.
George, A., Sabarwal, S., & Martin, P. (2011). Violence in contract work among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India. J Infect Dis 2011;204:S1235-40.
Kalichman, S., Pinkerton, S., Carey, M., Cain, D., & Mehlomakulu, V. (2011) Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa. BMC Public Health 11: 807–817
Lammers, J., Wijnbergen, S., & Willebrands, D. (2013) Condom use, risk perception, and HIV knowledge: a comparison across sexes in Nigeria. HIV/AIDs Auckl 5: 283–293. doi: 10.2147/HIV.S31687
Lane, T., Pettifor, A., Pascoe, S., Fiamma, A., & Rees, H. (2006) Heterosexual anal intercourse increases risk of HIV infection among young South African men. AIDS 20: 123–125.
Low, N., Broutet, N., Adu-Sarkodie, Y., Barton, P., Hossain, M., & Howkes, S. (2006). Global Control of Sexually transmitted infections. Lancet. 2006; 368:2001–2016. [PubMed]
Mahapatra, B., Lowndes, CM., Mohanty, SK., Gurav, K., & Ramesh, BM. (2013). Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Practices among Female Sex Workers in Karnataka, India. PLoS ONE 8(4): e62167. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062167
Mayhew, S., Collumbien, M., Qureshi, A., Platt, L., Rafiq, N., Faisel, A., Lalji, N., & Hawkes, S. (2009) Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan’s fight against HIV/AIDS. Sex Transm Infect 2009;85 Suppl 2:31-6.
Messersmith LJ, Kane TT, Odebiyi AI, Adewuyi AA. Who’s at risk? men’s STD experience and condom use in southwest Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann. 2000; 31:203–216.
Morisky, DE., Chiao, C., Stein, JA., & Malow, R. (2005) Impact of social and structural influence interventions on condom use and sexually transmitted infections among establishment- based female bar workers in the Philippines. J Psychol Human Sex;17(1/2):45–63.
National AIDS/STI Control Programme, Federal Ministry of Health (2010). HIV/STI Integrated Biological Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Health; 2010.
NAIIS. (2018). The 2018 Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey. Retrieved from https://www.naiis.ng/
Okafor, UO., Crutzen, R., Ifeanyi, O., Adebajo, S. & Borne, HVD. (2017). HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviour of young brothel and non-brothel based female sex Workers in Nigeria. BMC Res Notes10:380 DOI 10.1186/s13104-017-2712-8.
Oladembe, R., Adeniji, GO., Omilaju, I., Adebayo, S., Somda, Z., & Fajemisin, O. (2010). HIV modes of transmission in ogun state: an analysis of the distribution of new infections. Abuja, Nigeria: Enhancing Nigeria Response to HIV/ AIDS Project.
Open Society Foundations (2012). Criminalizing condoms: How policing practices put sex workers and HIV services at risk in Kenya, Namibia, Russia, South Africa, USA, and Zimbabwe. Sexual Health and Rights Project. New York
Panchanadeswaran, S., Johnson, S.C., Sivaram, S., Srikrishnan, A.K., Latkin, C.,& Bentley, M.E. (2008). Intimate partner violence is as important as client violence in increasing street- based female sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV in India. International Journal of Drug Policy, 19, 106-112.
Patra, RK., Mahapatra, B., Kovvali, D., Proddutoor, L., & Saggurti, N. (2012). Anal sex and associated HIV-related sexual risk factors among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India. Sex Health 9: 430–437.
Pettifor, A., & Rosenberg, N. (2011). The Need to Focus on Sex Workers in Generalized Epidemic Settings. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 38(4):324–325.
Price, J., & Cates, W. (2011). Sex Workers Studies: The Science, Semantics and Politics of Targeting our HIV Prevention Response. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 38(5):395–397.
Ramesh, B.M., Moses, R., Washington, S., Isac, B., Mohapatra., & Mahagaonkar, SB. (2008).; IBBA Study Team. Determinants of HIV Prevalence Among Female Sex Workers in Four South Indian States: Analysis of Cross-Sectional Surveys in TwentyThree Districts. AIDS 5(Suppl. 22): S35–S44.
Sarkar, NN. (2008) Barriers to condom use. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care;13(2):114–122. DOI: 10.1080/13625180802011302.
Suratt, H., & Inciardi, J. (2010). An effective HIV risk reduction protocol for drug-using women sex workers. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community 38(2):118–131.
UNAIDS (2018) ‘Miles to go: closing gaps, breaking barriers, fighting injustices. http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/miles-to-go_en.pdf Accessed 2019 May 10.
UNAIDS, (2002) Sex Work and HIV/AIDS. Geneva (Switzerland): UNAIDS; 2002. UNAIDS Guidance Note on HIV and Sex Work. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data. UNAIDS/09.09E. Geneva (Switzerland):
UNAIDS/the Global Fund/WHO (2016) ‘Key Population Atlas’ as referenced in UNAIDS (2016) 'Prevention Gap Report'
UNAIDS, (2009). Global summary on Aids epidemic Available from: http://www.unaids.org Accessed 2019 May 10.
UNAIDS, (2007). Aids epidemic update. Available from: http://www.unaids.org/ Accessed 2019 January 14.
Verma, R., Saggurti, N., Singh, A., & Swain, S. (2010) Alcohol and Sexual Risk Behavior among Migrant Female Sex Workers and Male Workers in Districts with High In- Migration from Four High HIV Prevalence States in India. AIDS Behav 14: S31–39. 15.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) ‘Implementing comprehensive HIV/STI programmes with sex workers: practical approaches from collaborative interventions’, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/90000/9789241506182_eng.pdf;jsessioni d=2A83413C5E9B140396BD52E7179B083F?sequence=1 Accessed 2019 May 10.
Zhang, H., Liao, M., Nie, X., Pan, R., & Wang C. (2011) Predictors of consistent condom use based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model among female sex workers in Jinan, China. BMC Public Health 11: 113.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 African Journal of Biomedical Research