Physicochemical, Antimicrobial and Toxicity Assessments of Anacardium occidentale Cream Formulations
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Keywords

Anacardium occidentale
Herbal creams
Physicochemical properties
Antimicrobial activity
Toxicity

Abstract

Anacardium occidentale is used locally for treating toothaches, gum problems, cough and bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, arthritis, eczema, psoriasis and skin infections. There are increasing global investigations on incorporation of medicinal plants into conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms for health and safety reason. Therefore, this study aimed at formulating and assessing herbal creams of A. occidentale leaf extract. Creams were formulated from the ethyl acetate fraction of A. occidentale leaf using standard procedures. Three creams containing the leaf extract in 2.5, 5 and 10% w/w were prepared using aqueous cream BPC as base. Organoleptic properties, density, extrusion time, spreading length, pH, diffusion rate, viscosity and globule size were assessed for the creams. Their antimicrobial effect was tested using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2785, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29213, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton sp. and Candida albicans. The formulated creams were smooth, dark yellow to deep brown, with density ranging from 0.78±0.10 to 0.98±0.01 g/cm3, extruding time of 4.81±0.27 to 6.01±0.23 sec, spreading length of 3.93±1.03 to 4.28±0.61 cm, pH of 3.58±0.02 to 4.01±0.03, diffusion rate of 2.11 to 3.00 mm/hr, viscosity of 622.50±3.54 to 1277.50±307.59 cP and globule size of 55.38±42.65 to 188.4±98.88 μm. Their zones of inhibitions were 13.3-16.7 mm for bacteria and 9.7-16.0 mm for fungi. There was neither oedema nor erythema on the mice skins. The formulated herbal creams have acceptable physicochemical properties, active against tested bacteria and fungi and demonstrated safety profiles in animal model. The creams could be further enhanced for translational outcomes.

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