Assessment of Acute and Sub-acute toxicity effects of methanol extract of leaves of Solanum dasyphyllum in an experimental mouse model
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Solanum dasyphyllum


Solanum dasyphyllum leaves are used to treat a range of diseases in ethnomedicine. However, there are few reports on its toxicity. The goal of this investigation was to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of methanol extract of leaves of Solanum dasyphyllum (MESd) in Swiss mice. Dried MESd was extracted with 80% methanol. The MESd was given orally to mice at a single graded doses (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 g/kg) and monitored for 14 days in an acute toxicity test. In the sub-acute toxicity study for 28 days, the animals received oral graded doses (125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) of MESd while the control group received tween-80 (1%). Body weights were measured at 2-day intervals. At the conclusion of the study, liver function tests, lipid profiles, and histology were determined. The LD50 was determined to be 5.62 g/kg. Except at 5 and 10 g/kg, MESd was relatively non-toxic, with no mortality or obvious symptoms of toxicity. In acute toxicity, the extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced food and water consumption in all the treatment groups relative to the control. Body weight in surviving mice in acute toxicity study increased, after the initial reduction in weights. In the sub-acute toxicity, the extract showed no significant increase in liver enzymes, while significant increase was observed in HDL at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The histology of the liver and kidney showed no substantial changes, except in animals that received 1000 mg/kg MESd. Methanol extract of leaves of Solanum dasyphyllum appears to be safe in mice in lower doses. However, high dose for extended period appears to be associated with toxicity.

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