Paludose™ Herbal Mixture: Antimalarial Activity, Safety and Chemical Composition in a Mouse Model of Plasmodium berghei


PALUDOSE™ is a herbal mixture with wide usage in Cotonou, Republic of Benin for the treatment of malaria, but with little information on its beneficial effects. Here we investigate its antimalarial activity, safety and chemical composition in a mouse model of Plasmodium berghei. Acute toxic effect of PALUDOSE™ was evaluated. Thereafter, seventy Swiss mice, infected intravenously with 1 x 106 chloroquine sensitive P. berghei NK65 strain were assigned to 5 treatment groups to receive, orally; 1x, 2x and 4x PALUDOSE™ (0.143, 0.29 and 0.57 mL/kg), artemether/lumefantrine (0.5 mg/3.0 mg/mL) or 2 mL/kg normal saline. Suppression of parasite growth in treatment groups was calculated. Liver and kidney function tests of the experimental mice were determined and mortality monitored to D21 of the experiment. The phytochemical constituents of PALUDOSE™ were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The median lethal dose LD50 of PALUDOSE™ herbal mixture is > 7.15 mL/kg. 2X and 4X Paludose® produced significant suppression of parasite growth of 92 and 87 % respectively on day 4 post treatment, which was comparable to 99.3 % observed in infected mice treated with A/L. However, the initial significant suppression of parasite growth in mice treated with Paludose®. was not sustained as parasites recrudesced.  Treatment with 4X Paludose ® and A/L significantly prolonged survival of P. berghei infected mice. As parasites recrudesced in experimental mice, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increased (p < 0.05) in groups treated with PALUDOSE™ and the untreated group compared to AL group on D14 and D21. Five major compounds identified in the GCMS were 3,5-Dimethylpyrazole, Limonene, Borneol, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and β-D-Glucopyranose. Paludose® appears to be a safe but short acting antimalarial herbal mixture

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