Influence of Varying Degree of Wood Dust Exposure on Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms among Wood Workers in Kano, North Western Nigeria

Abstract

Summary: One of the major occupation-related health challenges encountered by wood workers is respiratory disorder, which usually results from breathing in noxious or toxic chemicals such as wood dust. The aim of this study is to evaluate the respiratory functions and symptoms among wood workers exposed to varying degrees of wood dust in Kano, Nigeria.  This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 370 randomly selected wood workers in Kano wood market. Lung function test was performed, while semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to rate respiratory symptoms. The study demonstrated that there was low percentage predicted force expiratory volume at one minute (PPFEV1) and percentage predicted ratio of FEV1 and FVC, whereas, the percentage predicted forced vital capacity (PPFVC) of the respondents across all age groups remained unchanged. Similarly, a negative correlation was observed between degree of exposure to the hazards and lung function of the workers (r = -0.655, P-Value = 0.0001). A statistically significant association existed between exposure to wood dust and respiratory symptoms, thereby contributing to the observed manifestation of respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough, corrhiza, breathlessness and wheezing among 61% of wood dust exposed workers.

Keywords: Wood workers, Wood dust, Occupational hazard, Lung function, Respiratory symptoms

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References

American Thoracic Society (1991). Lung function testing: Selection of referencevalues and interpretative strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis; 144; 1202-1218.

Anders B., Mikkelsen, Vivi S., Torben S. and Inger S. (2002). Determinants of wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry. Annals of Occupational Hygiene; 46:8; 673-685.

Bosan I.B. and Okpapi J.U (2004). Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among workers in the savannah belt of northern Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine; 3(1):22-27.

Chirdan O.O. and Akosu J.T. (2004). Respiratory symtoms in workers at katako wood market, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care; 16:2; 30-33

Crompton G.K, Haslett C. and Chilvers E.R (1999). Diseases of the respiratory system. 19th ed. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. Churchill Livingstone England. Pp 242-259.

Hessel P.A., Herbert F.A., Melenka L.S., Yoshida K, Michaelchuk D, Nakaza M. (1995). Lung health in sawmill workers exposed to pine and spruce. Chest;108:642–6.

Kim, K. H., Jahan, S. A., & Lee, J. T. (2011). Exposure to formaldehyde and its potential human health hazards. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 29(4), 277-299

Masoud N., Zeinab J., and Fatemeh K.S (2018). Functional disorders of the lung and symptoms of respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust in Iran. Epidemiol Health; 2018: 40: e2018031.

Ministry of Manpower (2006). A semi-Quantitative Method to Assess Occupational Exposure to Harmful Chemicals. Occupational Safety and health Division, Singapore 059764

Montano D. (2014). Chemical and biological work-related risks across occupations in Europe: a review. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 9, 28. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-9-28

Ratnasingam, J., Ioras, F., Tadin, I., Lim, T., & Ramasamy, G. (2014). Respiratory effects in woodworkers exposed to wood and wood coatings dust: A regional evaluation of South East Asian countries. J. Appl. Sci, 14, 1763-1768.

SAFE Work (2005). Health hazards of wood dust. Bulletin No. 238.

Shamssain M.H (1992). Pulmonary function and symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust. Thorax; 47:84–7.

Wood Dust study Group 1(1995). Summary of data reported and evaluation. Wood dust; 62: 35.

Wondu R.D., Dilnessa F., Tewodros G.M., and Elias M. (2019). Effect of Occupational Wood Dust on Pulmonary Function among Woodworkers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia, A Comparative Cross Sectional Study. Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine; 8.8: 587-593

Workers Health Center Fact Sheet (2004). Wood dust. Occupational exposure standards for wood dust. National occupational health and safety commission.

American Thoracic Society (1991). Lung function testing: Selection of referencevalues and interpretative strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis; 144; 1202-1218.

Anders B., Mikkelsen, Vivi S., Torben S. and Inger S. (2002). Determinants of wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry. Annals of Occupational Hygiene; 46:8; 673-685.

Bosan I.B. and Okpapi J.U (2004). Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among workers in the savannah belt of northern Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine; 3(1):22-27.

Chirdan O.O. and Akosu J.T. (2004). Respiratory symtoms in workers at katako wood market, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care; 16:2; 30-33

Crompton G.K, Haslett C. and Chilvers E.R (1999). Diseases of the respiratory system. 19th ed. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. Churchill Livingstone England. Pp 242-259.

Hessel P.A., Herbert F.A., Melenka L.S., Yoshida K, Michaelchuk D, Nakaza M. (1995). Lung health in sawmill workers exposed to pine and spruce. Chest;108:642–6.

Kim, K. H., Jahan, S. A., & Lee, J. T. (2011). Exposure to formaldehyde and its potential human health hazards. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 29(4), 277-299

Masoud N., Zeinab J., and Fatemeh K.S (2018). Functional disorders of the lung and symptoms of respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust in Iran. Epidemiol Health; 2018: 40: e2018031.

Ministry of Manpower (2006). A semi-Quantitative Method to Assess Occupational Exposure to Harmful Chemicals. Occupational Safety and health Division, Singapore 059764

Montano D. (2014). Chemical and biological work-related risks across occupations in Europe: a review. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 9, 28. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-9-28

Ratnasingam, J., Ioras, F., Tadin, I., Lim, T., & Ramasamy, G. (2014). Respiratory effects in woodworkers exposed to wood and wood coatings dust: A regional evaluation of South East Asian countries. J. Appl. Sci, 14, 1763-1768.

SAFE Work (2005). Health hazards of wood dust. Bulletin No. 238.

Shamssain M.H (1992). Pulmonary function and symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust. Thorax; 47:84–7.

Wood Dust study Group 1(1995). Summary of data reported and evaluation. Wood dust; 62: 35.

Wondu R.D., Dilnessa F., Tewodros G.M., and Elias M. (2019). Effect of Occupational Wood Dust on Pulmonary Function among Woodworkers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia, A Comparative Cross Sectional Study. Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine; 8.8: 587-593

Workers Health Center Fact Sheet (2004). Wood dust. Occupational exposure standards for wood dust. National occupational health and safety commission.

American Thoracic Society (1991). Lung function testing: Selection of referencevalues and interpretative strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis; 144; 1202-1218.

Anders B., Mikkelsen, Vivi S., Torben S. and Inger S. (2002). Determinants of wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry. Annals of Occupational Hygiene; 46:8; 673-685.

Bosan I.B. and Okpapi J.U (2004). Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among workers in the savannah belt of northern Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine; 3(1):22-27.

Chirdan O.O. and Akosu J.T. (2004). Respiratory symtoms in workers at katako wood market, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care; 16:2; 30-33

Crompton G.K, Haslett C. and Chilvers E.R (1999). Diseases of the respiratory system. 19th ed. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. Churchill Livingstone England. Pp 242-259.

Hessel P.A., Herbert F.A., Melenka L.S., Yoshida K, Michaelchuk D, Nakaza M. (1995). Lung health in sawmill workers exposed to pine and spruce. Chest;108:642–6.

Kim, K. H., Jahan, S. A., & Lee, J. T. (2011). Exposure to formaldehyde and its potential human health hazards. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, 29(4), 277-299

Masoud N., Zeinab J., and Fatemeh K.S (2018). Functional disorders of the lung and symptoms of respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust in Iran. Epidemiol Health; 2018: 40: e2018031.

Ministry of Manpower (2006). A semi-Quantitative Method to Assess Occupational Exposure to Harmful Chemicals. Occupational Safety and health Division, Singapore 059764

Montano D. (2014). Chemical and biological work-related risks across occupations in Europe: a review. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 9, 28. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-9-28

Ratnasingam, J., Ioras, F., Tadin, I., Lim, T., & Ramasamy, G. (2014). Respiratory effects in woodworkers exposed to wood and wood coatings dust: A regional evaluation of South East Asian countries. J. Appl. Sci, 14, 1763-1768.

SAFE Work (2005). Health hazards of wood dust. Bulletin No. 238.

Shamssain M.H (1992). Pulmonary function and symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust. Thorax; 47:84–7.

Wood Dust study Group 1(1995). Summary of data reported and evaluation. Wood dust; 62: 35.

Wondu R.D., Dilnessa F., Tewodros G.M., and Elias M. (2019). Effect of Occupational Wood Dust on Pulmonary Function among Woodworkers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia, A Comparative Cross Sectional Study. Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine; 8.8: 587-593

Workers Health Center Fact Sheet (2004). Wood dust. Occupational exposure standards for wood dust. National occupational health and safety commission.

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