Effect of furosemide on dexmedetomidine anaesthesia in cats

Abstract

The effects of intramuscular (IM) administrations of 10mcg/kg dexmedetomidine, followed  10 minutes later by either IM injection of 10mg/kg ketamine alone  (DK) or with 2.5 mg/kg furosemide (DKF) were assessed in five healthy cats (3 males and 2 females) using selected anaesthetic indices (Time to onset of anaesthesia (OA), Duration of Analgesia (DA), Duration of Recumbency (DR), and Time to Standing (TS), as well as, changes in heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) ,  following loss of righting reflex, and  at 10 min intervals for 60-minute.  The OA for DKF group (2.2 ±0.45 min) was not significantly (P>0.05) different from that for DK group (2.4± 1.14 min). The DA (42.6 ±13.01min) and DR (71.6 ±17.94min) for DKF group were longer than respective values of DA (31.8± 14.3) and DR (51.2 ± 16.2min) for the DK group. The TS for DKF (3.6 ± 2.8 min) was shorter than TS (8.0±3.8) for DK. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P ˃ 0.05).

HR, RR and RT were from 84.8 ± 8.7 to 113.2±30.7 beats/min, 17.4± 6.2 to 48.8 ±12.1 breaths/min and from 36.0±0.5 to 37.6 ± 0.6°C (DKF); 96.0±19.4 beats/min, 24.8±19.1 to 71.2 ± 34.3breaths/min and from 35.1±1.2 to 37.6 ±0.8 °C. There were no significant differences (P ˃ 0.05) in the vital parameters between the DKF and DK treatments. The values for HR and RR for DKF were generally lower than those for DK group.

It was concluded that concurrent administration of furosemide with dexmedetomidine- anaesthesia in cats prolonged the duration of analgesia and recumbency but had no effect on onset of anaesthesia. A cat on this anaesthetic combination concurrently placed on furosemide medication will therefore need to be carefully monitored until full recovery

Click to view file (PDF)

References

Adetunji, A., Lawal, F. M. and Oguntoye, C. O. (2013). The effect of concurrent administration of furosemide on xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia in rabbits. NVJ. 34 (4): 863-869.

Adetunji, A., Oguntoye, C. O., Lawal, F.M. and Thani, V. O. (2010). The effect of concurrent administration of furosemide on diazepam/ketamine anaesthesia in cats. In: Proceedings of the 47th Annual Congress of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association. 70 -73.

Alvaides R. K., Teixeira Neto, F. J., Aguiar, A. J. A. and Steagall, P. V. (2008). Effects of acepromazine or atropine given before dexmedetomidine in dogs. Vet. Rec. 162 (10) :852-856. and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, 3rd edn. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp 140–157.

Ansah, O. B., Raekallio, M. and Vainio, O. (1998). Comparison of three doses of dexmedetomidine with medetomidine in cats following intramuscular administration. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 21: 380–387.

Berry, S. H. (2015). Injectable anaesthetics. In: Tranquilli, W. J., Thurmon, J. C. and Grimm, K. A. (eds.) Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, U.S.A., pp 297-331.

Carvalho, E. R., Champion, T., Vilani, R. G. O. C., Freitas, G. C., Ambrosini, F., Silva, G. A., Gonçalves, K. S. and Fischborn, J. C. J. (2019). Sedative and electrocardiographic effects of low dose dexmedetomidine in healthy cats. Pesq. Vet. Bras. 39 (2):142-147.

Clarke, K. W., Trim, C. M. and Hall, L. W. (2014). General Pharmacology of the injectable agents. In: Clarke, K. W., Trim, C. M. and Hall, L. W. Veterinary Anaesthesia. Saunders Elsevier Ltd., London, pp135-148.

Dawson, B. and Trapps, R. G. (2004). Basic and clinical biostatistics, 4th edition, McGraw Hill, New York, pp 162-189.

Granholm, M., McKusick, B. C., Westerholm, F. C. and Aspegrén, J. C. (2006). Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine or medetomidine in cats and their reversal with atipamezole. Vet. Anaesth. Analg. 33(4): 214-223.

Granholm, M., McKusick, B. C., Westerholm, F. C. and Aspergen, J. C. (2007) Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of intramuscular and intravenous doses of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine in dogs and their reversal with atipamezole. Vet. Rec. 160 (26):891-897.

Hanna, R. M., Borchard, R. E. and Schmidt, S. L. (1988). Pharmacokinetics of ketamine HCl and metabolite I in the cat: a comparison of I.V., I.M., and rectal administration. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 11(1):84-93.

Haskins, S. C., Patz, J. D., Farver, T. B. (1986). Xylazine and xylazine-ketamine in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47:636–641.

Kennedy, M. J. and Johnson, R. A. (2015). Dexmedetomidine and Atipamezole Clinician’s Brief. 65-67

Kistner, S. B. R. (2018). Injectable anaesthetics. In: Duke- Novakovski, T., Marieke de Vries and Seymour, C. (eds) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Anaesthesia and Analgesia 3rd Edition British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Quedgeley, Gloucester, pp 190 - 213

Kurdi, M. S., Theerth, K. A. and Deva, R. S. (2014). Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. Anesth Essays Res. 8(3): 283–290.

Kuusela, E., Raekallio, M. and Vainio, O. (2000). Comparison of three doses of dexmedetomidine and its enantiomers in dogs. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 23:15–20.

Levy, J. K., Nutt, K. R. and Tucker, S. J. (2015). Reference interval for rectal temperature in healthy confined adult cats. J. Feline Med. Surg. 17(11):950-952.

McDonell, W. N. and Kerr, C. L. (2007). Respiratory system. In: Tranquilli, W. J., Thurmon, J. C. and Grimm, K.A. (eds.) Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th ed. Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, pp 117-152.

McKelvey, D. and Hollingshead, K. W. (2000). General anaesthesia. In: McKelvey, D. and Hollingshead, K.W. (eds.) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Mosby, St. Louis. Missouri, pp 51-110.

Mercer, S. J. (2009). ‘The Drug of War’ – a historical review of the use of Ketamine in military conflicts. J. Roy. Naval Med. Serve. 95: 145–150.

Monteiro, E. R., Campagnol, D., Parrilha, L. R. and Furlan, L. Z. (2009) Evaluation of cardiorespiratory effects of combinations of dexmedetomidine and atropine in cats. J Feline Med. Surg. 11: 783–792.

Neto, F. J. T. (2009). Dexmedetomidine: a new alpha-2 agonist for small animal practice

Proceedings of the 34th World Small Animal Veterinary Congress WSAVA 2009, São Paulo, Brazil.

Robertson, S. A., Gogolski, S. M., Pascoe, P., Shafford, H. L., Sager, J. and Griffenhagen, G. M. (2018) J. Feline Med. and Surg. 20: 602–634.

Selmi, A. L., Mendes, G. M., Lins, B.T., Figueiredo, J. P. and Barbudo-Selmi, G. R. (2003).

Evaluation of the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-butorphanol and dexmedetomidine-ketamine in cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 222:37–41.

Selmi, A. L., Mendes, G. M., Figueiredo, J. P., Barbudo-Selmi., G. R. and Lins, B. T. (2004). Comparison of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins. Can. Vet. J. 45: 481-485.

Stoelting R. K. (1999). Non barbiturate induction drugs. In: Stoelting, R. K. (ed.) Pharmacology, Thomas, J. A. and Lerche, P. (2011): Anesthetic agents and adjuncts. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia for Veterinary Technicians 4th Edn Mosby Elsevier, Missouri, USA, pp 50 -95.

Verstegen J., Fargetton X., Ectors F. (1989) Medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia in cats. Acta Vet Scand; 85:117–123.

Verstegen J., Fargetton X., Donnay I., Ectors F. (1991): An evaluation of medetomidine/ketamine and other drug combinations for anaesthesia in cats. Vet. Rec. 128 (2) :32–35.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences