Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences <p>Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences (JAAPS) is a bi-annual international journal and the official publication of African Association of Physiological Sciences.</p> <p>The aim of the Journal is to stimulate, publish and disseminate original investigations in various aspects of Physiological Sciences.</p> AFRICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES en-US Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences 2315-9987 The burden of cognitive impairment in Nigeria: perspectives and research prospects <p>Cognitive impairment represents deficits in memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension,<br>calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. It is seen in Alzheimer’s dementia,<br>vascular dementia, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and many other conditions. Cognitive impairment<br>and dementia constitute a huge burden worldwide, with the majority of individuals coming<br>from low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. This paper reviews the existing<br>studies regarding the prevalence and burden of these conditions in Nigeria, highlighting the<br>dearth of comprehensive nation-wide studies that addresses the situation. The study also brings<br>perspectives on research ideas and way forward towards improving access to healthcare<br>services for people living with cognitive impairment and dementia.</p> I.U. Yarube Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 69 73 Route of exposure influences the cardiovascular effects of Cannabis sativa in salt-induced hypertensive male Wistar rats <p><strong>Background</strong>: Exposre to <em>Cannabis sativa </em>(CS) has been suggested to exert ameliorative<br>effects in hypertensive conditions. Using various exposure routes, this study investigated the<br>likely cardiovascular protective effect of CS in high salt diet (HSD) induced hypertensive male<br>Wistar rats. <strong>Methods</strong>: Exposure routes investigated include dietary incorporation<br>(10%CS+90%HSD), ethanol extract of C<em>. sativa </em>intake (ECS, 3mg/kg p.o.), and inhalation of<br><em>C. sativa </em>fumes (1g/day/animal). GC-MS analysis of CS was evaluated, and forty animals were<br>equally divided into 5 groups as follows; Group I (control) received normal diet, Groups II-V<br>received HSD alone, CS+HSD, ECS+HSD, and CS fumes+HSD for 28days, respectively.<br>Thereafter, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiographic readings<br>were assessed. Haematological analysis of retro-orbital sinus blood samples after light<br>anaesthesia was also evaluated for full blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate,<br>fibrinogen concentration, and blood viscosity. Aortic samples were harvested for histology.<br><strong>Resulte</strong>: The GC-MS showed Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin,<br>Cannabidiol and Cannabinol, as prevalent in CS. The HSD only exhibited elevated (P&lt;0.05)<br>RBC, PCV, haemoglobin, MCV, platelets, WBC, neutrophil, blood viscosity, systolic,<br>diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to control. CS exposure groups (III-V)<br>exhibited reduced (P&lt;0.05) RBC, PCV, haemoglobin, WBC, blood viscosity, systolic, diastolic<br>and mean arterial blood pressure compared to HSD only. However these values were elevated<br>compared to control. ECG tracings seen in group II suggests myocardial electrical signal<br>dysfunction while tracings in the CS exposure groups suggest partial amelioration of<br>myocardial signalling pathways. Histology showed hypertension-induced aortic structural<br>alterations that were not ameliorated by exposure to <em>CS. </em><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Data obtained suggest<br>that controlled exposure to <em>Cannabis sativa </em>either in diet, as ethanol extract or inhalation may<br>mediate elevated blood pressure and impaired cardio-electrical signalling in salt (NaCl)-<br>induced hypertension. However, hypertension-induced cardiac structural and vascular<br>impairments are not ameliorated by exposure to <em>Cannabis sativa</em></p> A.O. Ige M.O. Olaoye D.T. Oluwole G.T. Ayeni E.O. Adewoye Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 74 88 Attenuated blood coagulation in wistar rats fed graded levels of a protein diet <p><strong>Background: </strong>Blood coagulation (haemostasis) is a defense mechanism that helps to prevent<br>the excessive loss of blood from damaged blood vessels by formation of a plug. The<br>relationship between diet and blood coagulation has been studied over time. However, there is<br>a dearth of information regarding the effect of consumption of high levels of casein and<br>crayfish proteins on blood coagulation. <strong>Aim: </strong>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the<br>impact of consumption of graded levels of casein and crayfish proteins on blood coagulation in<br>Wistar rats. <strong>Method: </strong>Graded levels of casein (milk protein) and crayfish (seafood) were<br>incorporated in rat diet as sources of protein at 20%, 30% and 50% concentrations. At the end<br>of the experimental period (28 days), Platelet Count, Bleeding Time, Clotting Time,<br>Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, and Fibrinogen Concentration<br>were evaluated. Standard data analytical software (Graphpad prism version 5.0) was used to<br>analyze the data. <strong>Results: </strong>From the findings of this study, when compared with the control,<br>platelet count and fibrinogen concentration were significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05) at 50%<br>concentration while clotting time, Prothrombin Time and and Activated Partial<br>Thromboplastin Time were elongated significantly (p&lt;0.05) at 50% concentration; the<br>elongation of the BT was not statistically significant (P&gt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Consumption of<br>high concentration of casein and crayfish proteins consistently over a period can attenuate<br>blood coagulation and may predispose to excessive bleeding, with possible adverse<br>cardiovascular consequences.</p> R.O. Aikpitanyi-Iduitua A.D.A. Ighoroje Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 89 94 Antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and heptoprotective potentials of perinatal Thaumatococcus daniellii leaf supplemented diet in male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Thaumatococcus daniellii </em>(Benn.) Benth is one of the monocotyledonous herbs<br>found in rain forests and coastal areas of West and Central Africa. This study investigated the<br>antioxidant, hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective roles of perinatal <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em><br>leaf supplemented diet in offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats. <strong>Methods</strong>: Twenty-four (24)<br>pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were used and fed either a control diet or <em>Thaumatococcus</em><br><em>daniellii </em>leaf supplemented diet (TDLSD). The dams were given TDLSD diet up to parturition<br>(in-utero group, IUG), or from birth to post-natal day 21 (lactation group, LG) or for a period<br>covering both, combined (CG). On postnatal day 90, blood sample was collected via retroorbital puncture to obtain serum sample for the determination of cholesterol (CHOL),<br>triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and<br>hepatic lipase (HL). Aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT),<br>alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was investigated. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced<br>glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), malonaldehyde (MDA) were investigated. <strong>Results</strong>: There<br>was no significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in CHOL, LDL, and HDL levels in LG and CG<br>offspring while TG significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased in IUG, and CG compared with control.<br>HL increased significantly (p&lt;0.05), ALT, AST and ALP significantly decrease (p&lt;0.05) while<br>GSH, SOD and CAT upregulated in IUG, LG and CG compared with CONT. MDA<br>downregulated(p&lt;0.05) in IUG, LG and CG compared with CONT. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study<br>provides evidence that perinatal <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii </em>leaf supplemented diet possesses<br>antioxidant, lipid lowering and hepatoprotective potentials in offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats<br>though it was observed that in-utero exposure produced more effect hence, it’s dependent on<br>the window of exposure.</p> Y.D.` Igbayilola F.A. Olaoye O.S. Aina M.A. Ashiru A.M. Mofolorunso Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 95 104 Corn silk (Stigma maydis) aqueous extract attenuates high-salt induced glucose dysregulation and cardiac dyslipidemia: Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activities <p><strong>Background: </strong>Corn silk (<em>Stigma maydis</em>) is the long silky tuft of hairs from the female<br>inflorescence of maize (Zea mays L) with rich antioxidant activity and free radicals scavenging<br>capacity. High-salt diet on the other hand, has been shown to alter vascular and alter metabolic<br>disorders. However, the exact ameliorating mechanism of corn silk (CS) effect is still being<br>widely studied. This study examined the effect of aqueous corn silk extract on high saltinduced cardiac glucose and lipid dysmetabolism. <strong>Methods: </strong>Twenty male Sprague-Dawley<br>rats (100-110g) were randomly selected into four groups (n=5) after a week of acclimatization<br>and fed with rat chow (CTR), corn silk extract (CS; 500 mg/kg), high salt diet (HSD; 8%) and<br>corn silk extract plus high salt feed (HSD; 8% + CS; 500 mg/kg) respectively for six weeks. At<br>the end of the experimental procedure, each animal was anesthetized by exposure to<br>chloroform vapor and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture. Data were analyzed and<br>expressed as mean ± SEM and p-values &lt; 0.05 were accepted as significant. <strong>Results: </strong>Corn silk<br>extract resulted in attenuated plasma and cardiac glycogen production, triglycerides, free fatty<br>acids, and total cholesterol associated with high-salt diet. However, the plasma level of<br>Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and nitric oxide was significantly elevated in CS groups<br>compared with control. Corn silk extract also decreased fasting blood glucose, insulin, and<br>glycogen synthase activity (P&lt;0.05) in HSD-fed rats. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is noteworthy from our<br>data that corn silk possesses antilipidemic and glucoregulatory properties associated with<br>enhanced phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K) activity, an insulin dependent signaling pathway<br>and may form an important component of nutritional candidate for ameliorating<br>cardiometabolic diseases.</p> A.O. Oyabambi O.S. Micheal A.O. Imam-Fulani S.S. Babatunde K.T. Oni D.O. Sanni Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 105 112 Erythrocyte antigens as markers and risk factors for myeloid leukaemias in Nigerian subjects <p><strong>Background: </strong>Erythrocyte antigens have long been associated with the aetiology and<br>pathogenesis of several disease conditions including various cancers and some human<br>behaviour. This study investigates the association of these antigens with myeloid leukaemias.<br><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a case-control study on subjects with age range of 6 to 67 years, undergoing<br>management for the disease in our study facility at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital.<br>24 cases of myeloid leukaemias comprising of 13 chronic myeloid leukaemias (CML) and 11<br>acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) were investigated with 25 apparently healthy, age and sex -<br>matched subjects as control. Erythrocyte antigens such as A, B, O, RhD, RhC, Rhc, RhE, Rhe,<br>Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb were determined on all subjects and controls. The absence of A and B<br>antigens is represented as O. All the antigens were detected with standard serological methods.<br>Statistical analyses were done using Graphpad Prism 8.0.1. <strong>Results: </strong>We recorded positive<br>association of antigens D, e, Jka, O, E and C with the associated risk of development of CML<br>in the order of D&gt;&gt;e&gt;&gt;Jka&gt;&gt;O&gt;&gt;E&gt;&gt;C (P&lt;0.05, respectively) while antigens D, e, Jka, Fyb,<br>E, O and A were positively associated with the risk of development of AML in the order<br>D&gt;&gt;e&gt;&gt;Jka&gt;&gt;Fyb&gt;&gt;E&gt;&gt;O&gt;&gt;A (P&lt;0.05, respectively). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The antigens D, e, Jka,<br>O, E, C implicated in this study can serve as risk factors for the development of CML while<br>antigens D, e, Jk, Fyb, E, O, A could be risk factors for the development of AML or can<br>contribute majorly to tumour aggression and therefore can be considered as markers for early<br>diagnosis of the malignancies.</p> M.O. Ibikunle O.I. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 113 117 Effects of shisha smoke inhalation on some long-term memory forms in adult male mice <p><strong>Background: </strong>Shisha is a flavoured tobacco designed to be smoked in a water-pipe, but it<br>effects on long-term memory has not been fully explored. This study was undertaken to<br>evaluate the effect of Shisha smoke inhalation on some long-term memory models in adult<br>male BALB/c mice. <strong>Methods</strong>: Twenty male mice were divided into 4 groups of five mice<br>each. Group I (control): fresh air; group II: exposed to bonged Shisha; group III: exposed to<br>unbonged Shisha; group IV: exposed to activated charcoal smoke only. Each group was<br>exposed for thirty minutes daily for seven weeks. Long-term memory was assessed using<br>elevated plus maze (EPM), novel object recognition test (NORT) and Barnes maze (BM).<br><strong>Results: </strong>There was statistically significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in novel object recognition in<br>bonged Shisha group when compared with the control. There was statistically significant<br>increase (P&lt;0.05) in spatial learning and memory in bonged Shisha group when compared with<br>control. There was statistically significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in acetylcholinesterase activity in<br>bonged Shisha group when compared with control, but there was no statistically significant<br>difference in anxiety related spatial memory in elevated plus maze when compared with the<br>control. There was also increased in necrosis of hippocampal cells in bonged Shisha group and<br>slight necrosis in unbonged and activated charcoal smoke when compared to control mice.<br><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The outcomes of this study suggest that bonged Shisha smoke is neurotoxic to the<br>brain because of combined effect of various toxicants emanating from different Shisha smoke<br>constituents used in the set-up.</p> M.D. Mohammed R.A. Magaji A.S. Isa T.A. Muazu A.A. Bulama Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 118 124 omparative study of electrocardiogram among male hypertensive students attending University Health Services and normotensive students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Worldwide cardiovascular diseases account for approximately 17 million deaths<br>annually, these complications. Hypertension is responsible for at least 9.4 million deaths every<br>year globally. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple, convenient, economical, and suitable test<br>for screening a relatively large population. The study was aimed at determining<br>electrocardiographic patterns among male hypertensive students attending university health<br>services and normotensive students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. <strong>Methods: </strong>A<br>total of 109 participants (18 – 53) years were recruited, among which were53 hypertensive and<br>56 non-hypertensive participants. Information on subject’s blood pressure, anthropometric<br>measurements and electrocardiogram were recorded. <strong>Results: </strong>The result showed a significant<br>higher mean age 35.60 ± 7.26 years, mean weight73.28 ± 12.06 kg, mean body mass index<br>(BMI) 25.23 ± 5.56 kg/m2, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) 141.17 ± 14.32 mmHg, mean<br>diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 89.74 ± 7.36 mmHg and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP)<br>107.27 ± 9.68 mmHg among hypertensive subjects as compared to control subjects. The<br>calculated ECG of higher mean heart rate (HR) (73.96 ± 13.77), mean QTc interval (392.11 ±<br>22.56),mean T wave (281.43 ± 119.45), and lower mean QRS axis (39.79 ± 29.22) among<br>hypertensive subjects as compared to control subjects and some of the ECG abnormalities that<br>were detected include; sinus tachycardia (16%), sinus bradycardia (2%), atrial fibrillation<br>(8%), left bundle branch block (2%), left axis deviation (8%), left ventricular hypertrophy<br>(40%), ST elevation (2%), ST depression (12%) and T wave inversion (24%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong><br>This study shows that male hypertensive subjects of ABU Zaria had higher HR, QTc interval,<br>T wave and lower QRS axis. Most frequently found ECG abnormalities were left ventricular<br>hypertrophy, T wave inversion, ST depression, sinus tachycardia, left axis deviation and atrial<br>fibrillation. The students should therefore routinely check the status of cardiovascular<br>performance through electrocardiogram recording.</p> I. Gimba M.B. Akor-Dewu J.A. Tende B.S. Garko M.D. Mohammed A.A. Bulama A. Adam Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 125 129 Assessment of the levels of serum parathyroid hormone in rural postmenopausal women in Zuturung district, Zangon Kataf Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>The physiological role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in calcium homeostasis and the<br>maintenance of bone mass in humans has been elucidated by several authors. The main<br>objective of the present study was to evaluate basal PTH levels in premenopausal,<br>perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in Zuturung district, Kaduna state, Nigeria. One<br>hundred and thirty-five subjects comprising of 38 premenopausal, 22 perimenopausal and 75<br>postmenopausal women were assessed. The subjects were selected based on some inclusion<br>and exclusion criteria. After administering a questionnaire, anthropometrical parameters were<br>determined using standard methods while five milliliters of blood were collected via<br>venipuncture. The blood was transferred to plain bottles, centrifuged and serum PTH levels<br>were determined using ELISA method at the Department of Chemical Pathology, Ahmadu<br>Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika. Results were presented as mean ± SD and data<br>were analyzed using ANOVA with p&lt;0.05 being considered as statistically significant. The<br>study revealed that postmenopausal and perimenopausal women were more likely to be<br>overweight (mean BMI 26.07±5.99 kg/m2, 26.42±7.27kg/m2 respectively) as compared with<br>their premenopausal counterparts (25.18±3.48kg/m2); p&lt;0.001. The postmenopausal and<br>perimenopausal women also had a higher waist circumference (89.63±10.66cm,<br>92.19±11.91cm) as compared with the premenopausal women (83.73±8.00cm) p&lt;0.001. Mean<br>serum parathyroid hormone levels were slightly decreased among the postmenopausal subjects<br>(2.25±1.88pg/ml) and perimenopausal (2.91±1.44pg/ml) as compared to the premenopausal<br>subjects (3.38±3.48pg/ml) although not significant (p&gt;0.05). These findings suggest a higher<br>cardiovascular risk and lower mean serum parathyroid hormone in the postmenopausal women<br>as compared with their premenopausal subjects.<br>We recommend further studies in a larger sample, comparing with women in urban regions<br>and determining serum cadmium levels in the subjects to identify if its toxicity is responsible<br>for the pattern of serum parathyroid hormone levels observed.</p> L.N. Achie K.V. Olorunshola J Igashi J.E. Toryila Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2 130 137 New Editor-in-Chief <p>Council of <strong>African Association of Physiological Sciences</strong> is pleased to announce the appointment of <strong>Professor Kennedy Erlwanger</strong> as the new Editor-in-Chief of <em>Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences. </em>&nbsp;Kennedy will succeed Professor Anthony B. Ebeigbe on January 1, 2022.</p> <p><strong>Contact:</strong></p> <p><strong>Professor Kennedy H. Erlwanger</strong></p> <p>School of Physiology</p> <p>Faculty of Health Sciences,</p> <p>University of the Witwatersrand,</p> <p>7 York Road, Parktown, 2193,</p> <p>SOUTH AFRICA</p> <p>Private bag 3, Wits, 2050, South Africa.</p> <p>Tel: +27 (0)11 717 2454</p> <p>Email: <a href=""></a></p> E-in-C Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 9 2