Background: Previous findings have shown that epilepsy can precipitate amnesia and anxiety, among other neuropsychiatric disorders. Bambusa vulgaris is used in African traditional medicine against convulsion, amnesia and anxiety but there is scanty scientific basis for these ethnomedicinal claims. Hence, this study investigated the anticonvulsant, antiamnesic and anti- anxiety effects of Bambusa vulgaris in mice. Methods: The acute oral ingestion of Bambusa vulgaris (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was investigated using pentylenetetrazole-, and strychnine- induced convulsion; antiamnesic using scopolamine-, and diazepam-induced amnesic models while the anxiolytic effect was assessed using elevated plus maze models. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Results: The extract at all the doses used significantly (p<0.05) elongated the death latency while at 400 mg/kg the onset of clonic and tonic convulsions were significantly (p<0.05) prolonged in pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion model. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg offered 60, 80 and 100% protection respectively in pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test. The extract showed no significant (p>0.05) effect on strychnine-induced convulsion model ruling out the involvement of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the anticonvulsant effect of the extract. The extract at all the tested doses significantly (p<0.05) in a dose dependent fashion ameliorated the amnesia induced by scopolamine and diazepam suggesting antiamnesic effect. Bambusa vulgaris at all the tested doses significantly (p<0.05) in a dose dependent pattern increased the percentage open arm entries and percentage open arm duration on the open arm of the elevated plus maze as well as reduced the anxiety indices of the experimental mice consistent with anxiolytic effect. The phytochemical quantification of the extract showed abundance of tannins and corroborated by the findings from the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the extract. Conclusion: This study therefore concluded that Bambusa vulgaris may possess anticonvulsant, antiamnesic and anxiolytic effects and provided scientific proof for its traditional use.