GCMS analysis and Phytoprotective effect of chloroform fraction of methanol leaf extract of Drymaria cordata against MSG-induced lesions in specific tissues


Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food additive whose toxicity has been demonstrated in experimental animals. Drymaria cordata,is traditionally used as antidote. The protective effect of chloroform fraction of methanol extract of drymaria cordata LINN. (CFDC) against MSG-induced lesions in rat liver, brain and prostate was investigated in this study.

Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups and orally treated for twenty-eight days as follows; A(control), B(CFDC (100 mg/kg)), C(MSG (200 mg/kg)) and D(MSG+CFDC). The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the final exposure and blood was collected by cardiac puncture into EDTA-sterilized sample bottles. The liver, brain and prostate were harvested and subjected to histological examination. The effect of CFDC was also investigated on lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, caspase 9 and caspase 3. The GC-MS analysis of
the chloroform fraction was also carried out.

Results: The results show that MSG caused injury to the hepatocytes, brain and the prostate which was significantly ameliorated in the group co-administered with CFDC. In addition, CFDC protected against the increased malondialdehyde level, elevated caspases 9 & 3 activities and increased percentage hepatic DNA fragmentation caused by MSG administration. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of some phytochemical compounds that might be the cause of its pharmacological effect in protecting against lesions in liver, brain and prostate of MSGtreated rats.

Conclusion: These results suggest that CFDC contains phytochemicals that might be relevant in the chemopreventive and therapeutic approach to MSG-induced cellular damage. However, further studies need to be carried out in order to investigate its mechanism of action

Key words: Drymaria cordata, monosodium glutamate, cellular injury, chemoprevention

Contexte: Le glutamate monosodique (MSG) est un additif alimentaire dont la toxicité a été démontrée chez les animaux de laboratoire. Drymaria cordata , est traditionnellement utilisée
comme antidote. L’effet protecteur de la fraction chloroforme de l’extrait de méthanol de drymaria cordata LINN (CFDC) contre les lésions induites par MSG dans le foie, le cerveau et la prostate du rat a été étudiée dans cette étude.

Méthodes: Vingt-quatre rats mâles Wistar ont été répartis également en quatre groupes et traités par voie orale pendant vingt-huit jours comme suit; A (contrôle), B (CFDC (100 mg / kg)), C (MSG (200 mg / kg)) et D (MSG + CFDC). Les animaux ont été sacrifiés 24 heures après l’exposition finale et le sang a été collecté par ponction cardiaque dans des bouteilles d’échantillons stérilisées à l’EDTA. Le foie, le cerveau et la prostate ont été prélevés et soumis à un examen histologique. L’effet de la CFDC a également été étudié sur la peroxydation lipidique, la fragmentation de l’ADN, la caspase 9 et la caspase 3. L’analyse GC-MS de la fraction chloroforme a également été réalisée.

Résultats: Les résultats montrent que le MSG a causé des lésions aux hépatocytes, au cerveau et à la prostate qui ont été considérablement améliorées dans le groupe coadministré avec la CFDC. En outre, CFDC a protégé contre l’augmenta tion du niveau de malondialdéhyde, les activités élevées de caspases 9 et 3 et l’augmentation du pourcentage de fragmentation de l’ADN hépatique causée par l’administration MSG. L’analyse GC-MS a révélé la présence de certains composés phytochimiques qui pourraient être la cause de son effet pharmacologique dans la protection contre
les lésions du foie, du cerveau et de la prostate de rats traités au MSG.

Conclusion: Ces résultats suggèrent que la CFDC contient des composés phytochimiques qui pourraient être pertinents dans l’approche chimio-préventive et thérapeutique des dommages cellulaires induits par le MSG. Cependant, d’autres études doivent être menées afin d’étudier son mécanisme d’action

Mots clés: Drymaria cordata, glutamate monosodique, lésion cellulaire, chimio-prévention

Correspondence: Mr. A.O. Olowofolahan, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail: mr_adeola@yahoo.com



Leung A Y and Foster S. “Monosodium Glutamate”. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients: Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. 2003:.2nd ed., New York: Wiley. pp. 373-375.

Beyreuther K, Biesalski HK and Fernstrom JD. “Consensus meeting: monosodium glutamate -an update”. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007. 61 (3): 304–313.

Stevenson D D .Monosodium glutamate and asthma”. J. Nutr. 2000. 130: 1067S-1073S.

Geha R, Beiser A, Ren C et al. Multicenter multiphase double blind placebo controlled study to evaluate alleged reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 1998.101:S243

Eweka AO and Adjene JO. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium Glutamate on themedial geniculate body of adult Wister rat. Electron J Biomed. 2007. 22:9–13.

Samuels A. The Toxicity/Safety of MSG: A study in suppression of information. Acctabil Resch. 1999. 6(4):259–310

Farombi E.O and Onyema OO. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat: modulatory role of vitamin C, vitamin E and quercetin. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006. May;25 (5):251-259.

Olowofolahan A. O., Aina O.O, Hassan E.T and Olorunsogo O.O. AmeliorativePotentials of Methanol Extract and Chloroform Fraction of Drymaria cordata on MSG-induced Uterine hyperplasia in Female Wistar Rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017. 20(4): 1-9.

Braicu C., Pilecki V., Balacescu O. and Irimie, A. Neagoe, I.B. The relationships between biological activities and structure of flavan-3-ols. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011. 12, 9342–9353.

Petric R, Braicu C. Raduly L, et al. Phytochemicals modulate carcinogenic signaling pathways in breast and hormone-related cancers. Onco Targets Ther. 2015. 8, 2053–2066.

Adeyemi O.O., Akindele A.J. and Ndubuisi N. Anti-inflammatory activity of Drymaria cordata extract. J Nat Remedies. 2008. 8 (1): 93– 100,

Barua C.C., Barua A.G., Roy J.D., Buragohain B. and Borah P. Studies on the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drymaria cordata Leaf Extract. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010.80, 1268-1270.

Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Das J , Pal M and Saha BP . Studies on the anti- inflammatoryeffects of Drymaria cordata Willd. Natural Product Sciences 1997; 63: 367- 369.

Mukherjee P.K., Bhattacharya S., Saha K., et al. Antibacterial Evaluation of Drymaria cordata Willd (Fam. Caryophyllaceae) Extract. Phytotherapy Research. 1998. 11, 249-250.

Sowemimo A., Van de Venter M., Baatjies L and Koekemoer T. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009. 6, 526-528.

Barua C.C., Roy J.D., Buragohain B., et al. Anxiolytic Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2009. 47, 969-973.

Akindele A.J., Ibe I.F. and Adeyemi O.O. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Drymaria cordata (Linn.) Willd (Caryophyllaceae) Extract. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012. 9, 25-35.

Barua C.C., Roy J.D., Buragohain B., et al. Analgesic and Anti-Nociceptive Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2011. 43, 121-125.

Barua C.C., Roy J.D., Buragohain B., et al. Anxiolytic Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2009. 47, 969-973.

Burkill H.M. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition, Vol. 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1985. 343.

Saklani A. and Jain S.K. In Cross Cultural Ethnobotany of North East India. Deep Publisher, India. 1994.

Wu Chin-Chung Mei-Ling Chan, Wen-Ying C, Ching-Yi T, Fang-Rong C and Yang-Chang W. DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0027 Published August 2005

Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.I. and Randall R.J. Protein measurements with the folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol.Chem. 1951. 193:260-265.

Varshney R. and Kale R.K. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes. Int. Radiat Biol. 1990. 58;773-743.

Belluardo M, Mudo G and Bindoni M. Effect of early destruction of the mouse arcuate nucleus by MSG on age dependent natural killer activity. Brain Res. 1990. 534:225– 333

Eweka AO and Adjene JO. Histological studies of the effects of Monosodium glutamate on the medial geniculate body of adult wister rat. Electron J Biomed. 2007;22:9–13.

Samuels A. The toxicity/safety of MSG: A study in suppression of information. AcctabilResch. 1999. 6(4):259–310.

Obochi GO, Malu SP, Obi-Abang M, Alozie Y and Iyam M. Effect of garlic extracts on MSG induced fibroid in wistar rats. Pak J Nutr. 2009. 8:970–976.

Eweka AO, Eweka A and Om’Iniabohs FAE.. Histological studies of the effects of Monosodium glutamate on the fallopian tube of adult female wistar rats. N Am J Med Sci. 2010;2(3):146–149.

George Asumeng Koffuor*, Kofi Annan, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Hope Korshie Fiadjoe1 and Ernest Enyan . Effect of Ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Blighia unijugata (Sapindaceae) on Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Uterine Leiomyoma in Sprague-Dawley Rats. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 3(4): 2013. 880-896, 2013

Olowofolahan A.O, Adeoye O.A, Offor G.N, Adebisi L.A and Olorunsogo O.O. Induction of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening and Cytochrome C Release by Fractions of Drymaria cordata. Arch. Bas. App. Med. 3 (2015) 135 – 144

Merve BA. Ahmet B and Nurşen B. Are all phytochemicals useful in the preventing of DNA damage? Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 109, Part 1, November 2017, Pages 210-217.

Susin SA, Lorenzo HK, Zamzami N, et al. Mitochondrial release of caspase-2 and -9 during the apoptotic process J. Exp. Med. 1999. 189: 381–394.

Qin ZH, Wang Y, Kikly KK, et al. Pro-caspase-8 is predominantly localized in mitochondria and released into cytoplasm upon apoptotic stimulation J. Biol. Chem. 2001. 276: 8079–8086.

Eman Mohammed Mohammed Abd-Ella , Abd-Elkarim Mohammed Abd-Lateif Mohammed . Attenuation of Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Hepatic and Testicular Toxicity in Albino Rats by Annona Muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) e-ISSN:2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676. Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. IV (Nov. - Dec.2016), PP 61-69 .

Nia K, Juliyatin PU, Nurdiana N and Diana L Monosodium glutamate exposure at early developmental stage increases apoptosis and stereotypic behavior risks on zebrafish (danio rerio) larvae. Indonesia Journal of Pharmacy .Vol 27 No 3, 2016 : 128-138.

Ruberto G, Baratta MT, Deans SG and Dorman HJ. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oils. Planta Med. 2000. 66: 687–693

Sermakkani M and Thangapandian V. GC-MS analysis of Cassia italic leaf methanol extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 5: 2012. 90-94.

Gomathi D, Kalaiselvi M, Ravikumar G, Devaki K and Uma C . GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides(L.) L. J Food Sci Techno. 2015. 52: 1212-1217.

Dandekar R, Fegade B and Bhaskar VH . GC-MS analysis of phytoconstituents in alcohol extract of Epiphyllum oxipetalum leaves. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2015. 4: 149-154.

Vijisaral ED and Subramanian A. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus leaves. Int J Curr Biotechnol; 2014; 2: 19-23.

Rajeswari G, Murugan M and Mohan VR. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components of Hugonia mystax L (Linaceae). Res J Pharmaceut Bio Chem Sci 2012; 3: 301-308.

Rajab MS, Cantrell C, Franzblau SG and Fischer NH. Antimycobacterial activity of phytol and derivatives: a preliminary structure-activity study. Planta Med, 1998; 64: 2-4.

Ryu KR, Choi YJ, Chung S and Kim DH. Antiscratching behavioral effect of the essential oil and phytol isolated from Artemisia princeps Pamp. In mice. Planta Med, 2011; 77: 22-26.

Saikia D, Parihar S, Chanda D, Ojha S and Kumar JK. Antitubercular potential of some semisynthetic analogues of phytol. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2010; 20: 508-512.

Lim SY, Meyer M, Kjonaas RA and Ghosh SK. Phytol-based novel adjuvants in vaccine formulation: 1. assessment of safety and efficacy during stimulation of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. J Immune Based Ther Vaccines, 2006; 4: 6.