Strategies for achieving water security in Nigeria by 2050

Abstract

Background: Water security denotes the capacity of the people to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. Nigeria has many rivers that cover about 10,812,400 hectares, and therefore water security should be assured all things being equal but burdened with an estimated 30% dysfunctional status of newly provided water supply infrastructure within the first year of provision.

Situation analysis: As of 2018, access to basic water supply services reached 67.9% with 87.3% for people living in urban areas and 59.7% for those in rural areas, while about 69 million people lack access to improved drinking-water sources, with attendant high prevalence of water-borne diseases, threat to the livelihoods, and low levels of school enrolment, especially among girls.

Forecast: Nigeria, with the fastest-growing population among the ten most populous countries in the world, is expected to have a population of 400 million by 2050. This rapid increase in population has been projected to stress the available water resources in the country if not adequately regulated and managed, thereby leading to an increase in water pollution, food shortage, and conflicts.

Challenges: The poor state of water supply infrastructure, climate change, numerous breakdowns of water supply infrastructures, inadequate measures for cost recovery, Skewed political will at state and local government levels.

Strategies to achieving water security: Revitalisation and strengthening of the water, sanitation and hygiene sector information management system, revision and activation of the national M&E framework with monitoring and evaluation indicators measurements, strengthening the operation and maintenance system to support real-time maintenance of water supply infrastructures.

Conclusion: With the exponential rate at which water demand is increasing in Nigeria, this review considered the enactment of appropriate legislation, with enforcement arms, and the activation of the national M&E framework with monitoring and evaluation systems and indicators towards significant progress towards achieving household water security in Nigeria.

Keywords: Water security, Nigeria, situation analysis, forecasts to 2050,

Résumé
Contexte : la sécurité de l’eau dénote la capacité des populations à garantir un accès durable à des quantités suffisantes d’eau de qualité acceptable pour assurer les moyens de subsistance, le bien-être humain et le développement socio-économique, pour la protection contre la pollution d’origine hydrique et les catastrophes liées à l’eau, et pour la préservation des écosystèmes dans un climat de paix et de stabilité politique.Le Nigéria compte de nombreux fleuves qui couvrent environ 10.812.400 hectares, et par conséquent, la sécurité de l’eau doit être assurée toutes choses égales mais est dans un état pénible de dysfonctionnement estimé à 30% des infrastructures d’approvisionnement en eau nouvellement fournies pendant la première année de fourniture.

Analyse de la situation : En 2018, l’accès aux services d’approvisionnement en eau de base a atteint 67,9%, dont 87,3% pour les personnes vivant en milieu urbain et 59,7% pour ceux en milieu rural, tandis qu’environ 69 millions de personnes n’ont pas accès à des sources améliorées d’eau potable, avec accompagnateur de prévalence élevée de maladies d’origine hydrique, menace pour les moyens de subsistance et faible taux de scolarisation, en particulier chez les filles.

Prévisions : Le Nigéria, avec la population à la croissance la plus rapide parmi les dix pays les plus peuplés du monde, devrait avoir une population de 400 millions d’habitants d’ici 2050. Cette augmentation rapide de la population est prévue à mettre sous stressles ressources d’eau disponibles dans le pays si pas suffisamment réglementés et gérés, ce qui entraînerait une augmentation de la pollution de l’eau, des pénuries alimentaires et des conflits.

Défis : Le mauvais état des infrastructures d’approvisionnement en eau, le changement climatique, de nombreuses pannes des infrastructures d’approvisionnement en eau, des mesures inadéquates pour le recouvrement des coûts, une volonté politique faussée aux niveaux des États et des gouvernements municipaux.

Stratégies pour assurer la sécurité de l’eau : Revitalisation et renforcement du système de gestion d’information du secteur de l’eau, de l’assainissement et de l’hygiène, révision et activation du cadre national de S&E avec mesures des indicateurs de suivi et d’évaluation, renforcement du système d’opération et de maintenance pour soutenir la maintenance en temps réel de l’eau infrastructures d’approvisionnement.

Conclusion : Avec le taux exponentiel auquel la demande en eau augmente au Nigéria, cette revue a considéré la promulgation d’une législation appropriée, avec des armes d’application, et l’activation du cadre national de S&E avec des systèmes de suivi et d’évaluation et des indicateurs vers des progrès significatifs vers la réalisation de la sécurité de l’eau domestique au Nigéria.

Mots-clés : Sécurité hydrique, Nigéria, analyse de situation, prévisions jusqu’en 2050

Correspondence: Dr. E.O. Oloruntoba, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Email

pdf

References

UN-Water (2006). Coping with Water Scarcity: A strategic issue and priority for system-wide action12pphttps://www.unwater.org/publications/coping-water-scarcity Last assessed on February 25, 2020

Guppy, L., Anderson, K. Water Crisis Report. United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and health, n (UNU-INWEH), Hamilton, Canada. https://inweh.unu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Global-Water-Crisis-The-Facts.pdf. Last assessed on February 24, 2020

World Water Assessment Programme, WWAP. 2009. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris: UNESCO, and London: Earthscan http://www.unepdhi.org/upload/unepdhi/WWDR3_Water_in_a_Changing_World.pdf Last assessed on February 27, 2020

White Chris. Understanding water scarcity: Definitions and measurements, Australian National University, Australia https://global water forum.org/2012/05/07/understanding-water-scarcity- definitions-and-measurements/. Last assessed on February 25, 2020

United Nation-Water. Water Security and the Global Water Agenda: A UN-Water Analytical briefs. 47pp. ISBN 978-92-808-6038-2 United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment & Health (UNU-INWEH) https://www.unwater.org/publications/water-security-global-water-agenda. Last assessed on February 23, 2020

Mekonnen M.M and Hoekstra A.Y. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity. Sci. Adv. 2016, [Cross Ref] [PubMed]

United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment & Health (UNU-INWEH), (2013). Water Security and the Global Water Agenda: A UN-Water Analytical briefs. 47pp. ISBN 978-92-808-6038-2 https://www.unwater.org/publications/water-security-global-water-agenda. Last assessed on February 25, 2020

Siwar C and Ahmed F. Concepts, Dimension and Elements of Water Security. Pakistan Journal of

Nutrition. 2014; 13(5): 281-286.

WHO/UNICEF 2017. Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene https://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report-jmp-water-sanitation-hygiene.pdf. Last assessed on February 25, 2020

Varis O, Keskinen M and Kummu M. Four dimensions of water security with a case of the indirect role of water in global food security. Water Security. 2017;1: 36-45.

Hoekstra A, Buurman J and Ginkel KCH. Urban water security: A review.2018. Vol 13.

Srinivasan V. Seto K.C. Emerson R and Gorelick S.M. The impact of urbanisation on water vulnerability: A coupled human-environment system approach for Chennai, India. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2013, 23, 229–239.

Wang X. Jian-yun Z. Shahid S. et al. Elmahdi A. Runi-min H. Mahtab A. Gini coefficient to assess equity in domestic water supply in the Yellow River. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang. 2012, 17, 65–75. Water 2019, 11, 231 17 of 19.

Vörösmarty C.J. Mclntyre P.B. Gessner M.O. et al. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 2010, 467, 555–561.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. In A Special Report of the Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2012.

Gheuens Jana and Nagabhatla Nidhi and Perera Duminda. Disaster-Risk, Water Security Challenges and Strategies in Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Water. 11. 637. 10.3390/w11040637. Last assessed on February 16, 2020

Ita E.O, Sado E.K, Balogun J.K, Pandogari A and Ibitoye B. “A preliminary checklist of Inland

Water Bodies in Nigeria with special reference to Lakes and Reservoirs”. Kainji Lakes Research Institute. Last assessed on February 25, 2020

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Aquastat’s FAO Information System on

Water. www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/nigeria. Last assessed on February 20, 2020.

Lohdip Y. N. and Gongden J. J. Nigerian water bodies in jeopardy: the need for sustainable management and security. 2013.https://www.witpress.com/Secure/elibrary/papers/WRM13/WRM13002FU1.pdf.Last assessed on

February 25, 2020

FGN/NBS. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in Nigeria: Report of the 2018 WASH National Outcome Routine Mapping.

WHO/UNICEF. Progress on Drinking-Water and Sanitation–2014 Update. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/glaas/en/Last assessed on February 25, 2020

USAID. Improved Access to Resources like Water can Prevent Potential Conflicts. Available online www.usaid.gov/nigeria/water.Last assessed on January 12, 2020

Krebs, M. Nigeria Reports Water Scarcity Across Numerous States. Digital Journal.

National Bureau of Statistics and Federal Ministry of Water Resources. The WASH Norm Survey. https://www.cleannigeria.ng/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/WASH-NORM-Survey- Findings_Infographics_FF.pdf. Last assessed on February 1, 2020

Adebowale N. Water Scarcity. Premium Times, August 29, 2017 https://www.premiumtimesng.

com/regional/nnorth-east/241897-180-million-people-lack-drinking- water-nigeria-countries-facing-conflicts-unicef.html. Last assessed on February 15, 2020

King M. D. Water Stress: A Triple Threat in Nigeria: In Sub-Saharan Africa National Security and Defense Energy, Resources and the Environment. Pacific council on international policy https://www.pacificcouncil.org/newsroom/water-stress-triple-threat-nigeria. Last assessed on February 20, 2020

United Nations. World population Prospect. Available online https://population.un.org/wpp/. Last assessed on February 25, 2020

OECD. Environmental Outlook to 2050: the consequences of inaction. OECD 2012. Available Online http://www.oecd.org/env/indicators-modelling-outlooks/oecd-environmental-outlook-1999155x.htmLast assessed on January 14, 2020

Sridhar M, Coker A and Shittu O. Rain-A Resource Untapped, Published by SRH Ecosolutions Ltd, Ibadan, pp. 1-413 +35, ISBN:978-978-57437-5-3 (Prints), 2020; 978-978-57437-0.

Bosun Banjoko and Mynepalli Kameswara Chandra Sridhar. Upgrading Wastewater

Treatment Systems for Urban Water Reuse, in Urban Water Reuse Handbook, Ed. , Johm Wiley Inc., (London), 2015; pp. 461-480.

School of geography and environment. A step by step guide to Monitoring and Evaluation https://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/research/technologies/projects/mesc/guide-to-monitoring-and-evaluation-v1-march2014.pdf. 2014. Last assessed on February 25, 2020