Oral Health Security in Nigeria: Analysis of the current situation and projections towards 2050

Abstract

Background: Despite the increasing population in the country, only a few Nigerians have access to oral health care, which seems directly responsible for the high prevalence of oral diseases and the high rate of unmet needs in the country. The few dental facilities and personnel in the country are disproportionately located in the urban areas leaving majority of the population without care.

Methods: Internet search was done using PubMed and google scholar. Local library search was done manually to retrieve literature on oral health in Nigeria. Search words that were used include periodontal disease/periodontitis, dental caries, prevalence of dental disease, dental service utilization and Nigeria.

Results: No national study was seen during the search. Almost all the retrieved studies reported a high prevalence of periodontal disease, while a few of the studies on dental caries reported a decline in the condition. However, many of the studies on dental caries reported a gradual increase in the prevalence of the condition. A low rate of utilization was generally reported as many Nigerians utilize dental services only when in pain.

Conclusion: An increase in the population will be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the prevalence of oral diseases and increased need for oral health care, and this will be disastrous without adequate planning.

Keywords: Oral Health, Population explosion, Health security, Utilization

Abstrait
Contexte : Malgré l’accroissement de la population du pays, seuls quelques Nigérians ont accès aux soins de santé bucco-dentaire, ce qui semble directement responsable de la forte prévalence des maladies bucco-dentaires et du taux élevé de besoins non satisfaits dans le pays. Les quelques établissements et personnels dentaires du pays sont situés de manière disproportionnée dans les zones urbaines, laissant la majorité de la population sans soins.

Méthodes : La recherche sur l’internet a été effectuée à l’aide de PubMed et du Google Scolaire. La recherche dans une bibliothèque locale a été effectuée manuellement pour retrouver la littérature sur la santé bucco-dentaire au Nigeria. Les mots de recherche utilisés incluent maladie parodontale / parodontite, caries dentaires, prévalence de la maladie dentaire, utilisation des services dentaires et Nigéria.

Résultats : Aucune étude nationale n’a été observée lors de la recherche. Presque toutes les études perçues ont fait état d’une prévalence élevée de la maladie parodontale, tandis que quelques-unes des études sur la carie dentaire ont signalé une réduction de la condition. Cependant, de nombreuses études sur les caries dentaires ont signalé une augmentation progressive de la prévalence de la condition. Un taux faible d’utilisation a généralement été signalé, étant donné que de nombreux Nigérians n’utilisant des services dentaires que lorsqu’ils souffrent.

Conclusion : Une croissance de la population s’accompagnera à une correspondante croissance en prévalence des maladies bucco-dentaires et d’un besoin accru de soins de santé bucco-dentaire, ce qui sera désastreux sans une planification adéquate.

Mots - clés : Santé bucco - dentaire, Explosion démographique, Sécurité sanitaire, Utilisation

Correspondence: Dr. O.I. Opeodu, Department of Periodontology and Community Dentistry, College of Medicine, Unversity of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. opeodulanre1971@gmail.com

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