Development of a health security blueprint for the prevention of zoonotic diseases in Nigeria

Abstract

Introduction: Nigeria with an estimated population of about 198 million people, is faced with increasing health security challenges due to poverty, illiteracy and weak health systems. Further, endemic, emerging and reemerging infectious or zoonotic diseases are continuously transmitted between humans and animals. Consequently, the country’s limited capacity at enforcing/implementing regulatory policies governing livestock production, animal disease surveillance and activities at the human-animal-ecosystem interface, engenders transmission of zoonoses. Unfortunately, the present scenario does not only affect health security, but is also of Public Health importance; thus, impacting negatively on human capital development.

Recommendations: To overcome these threats, fundamental steps must be taken. First, setting up of a “One Health” Commission to evaluate the prevalence/burden of prevailing zoonoses. Second, carrying out Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analyses of the One Health situation and highlight interventional blueprints towards ensuring health security in the country.

Conclusion: Nigeria is faced with myriads of health security challenges that are exacerbated by endemic, emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To avert resultant imminent and future health threats, we propose the adoption of a One Health approach that will take advantage of the interdisciplinary or multisectoral cooperation among the human, veterinary and environmental health sectors to proactively prevent and control zoonoses in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Health security, Blue print, Prevention, Zoonoses

Abstrait
Contexte : LeNigéria, dont la population est estimée à environ 198 millions d’habitants, est confronté à des problèmes croissants en matière de sécurité sanitaire en raison de la pauvreté, de l’analphabétisme et de la faiblesse des systèmes de santé.En outre, les maladies infectieuses / zoonotiques endémiques, émergentes et ré-émergentes sont continuellement transmises entre humains et animaux. Par conséquent, la capacité limitée du pays à appliquer / implémenter les politiques réglementaires régissant la production animale, la surveillance des maladies animales et les activités à l’interface homme-animal-écosystème engendre la transmission des zoonoses. Malheureusement, le scénario actuel n’affecte pas seulement la sécurité sanitaire, mais revêt également une importance pour la santé publique ; ainsi, ayant un impact négatif sur le développement du capital humain.

Recommandations : Pour corriger ces menaces, des mesures fondamentales doivent être prises. Premièrement, la mise en place d’une commission ‘Une Santé’ chargée d’évaluer la prévalence/le fardeau des zoonoses pré dominantes. Secondement, effectuez des analyses de la situation Une Santé sur les forces, les faiblesses, les opportunités et les menaces (SWOT) et mettre en évidence les schémas d’intervention visant à garantir la sécurité sanitaire dans le pays.

Conclusion : le Nigéria est confronté à une myriade de problèmes de sécurité sanitaire exacerbés par les zoonoses endémiques, émergentes et ré-émergentes. Pour éviter les menaces imminentes et futures sur la santé, nous proposons l’adoption d’une approche Une Santé qui tirera parti de la coopération interdisciplinaire /multisectorielle entre les secteurs de la santé humaine, vétérinaire et environnementale pour prévenir et contrôler de manière proactive les zoonoses au Nigéria.

Mots clés : Développement, Sécurité sanitaire, Schéma directeur, Prévention, Zoonoses

Correspondence: Prof. S.I.B. Cadmus, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan,Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail. simeonc5@gmail.com.

pdf

References

WHO; U.K. Department for International Development Animal Health Programme; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Organisation for Animal Health. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases: A route to poverty alleviation. Report of a joint WHO/DFID-AHP meeting; September 20 and 21, 2005; WHO headquarters, Geneva, with the participation of FAO and OIE. Geneva: WHO. 2006.

Taylor LH, Latham SM and Woolhouse ME. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 2001;1411:983-989.

Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 2008; 451: 990–993.

Wang LF and Crameri G. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases. Rev sci tech Off int Epiz. 2014;33:569-81.

Maxwell1 MJ, Mary H, Freire de Carvalho1 et al. Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas. 2017.

Cleaveland S, Laurenson MK and Taylor LH. Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001; 356:991–999.

Keesing F, Belden LK, Daszak P et al. Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. Nature. 2010; 468:647–652.

Zinsstag J, Schelling E. Waltner-Toews D and Tanner M. From ‘one medicine’ to ‘one health’ and systemic approaches to health and well-being. Prev Vet Med. 2011; 101:148–156.

Akritidis N. Parasitic, fungal and prion zoonoses: an expanding universe of candidates for human disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011; 17:331–335

Cutler SJ, Fooks AR and van der Poel WH. Public health threat of new, re-emerging, and neglected zoonoses in the industrialized world. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010; 16:1–7.

Satterthwaite D, McGranaham G and Tacoli C. Urbanization and its implications for food and farming. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B. 2010; 365:2809–2820.

Ehizibolo DO, Ehizibolo PO, Ehizibolo EE, Sugun MY and Idachaba SE. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases in Nigeria through animal intervention. Afr J Biomed Res. 2011;14:81–88.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Rabies. Atlanta: CDC; 2009.

Grace D, Gilbert J, Randolph T and Kang’ethe E. The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2012; 1: 67-73

Bennett RM and Ijpelaar J. Updated Estimates of the Costs Associated with 34 Endemic Livestock Diseases in Great Britain: A Note, Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2005; 56:135-144.

Sackett D and Holmes P. Assessing the economic cost of endemic disease on the profitability of Australian beef cattle and sheep producers, Meat and Livestock Australia Limited, North Sydney.MLA Report AHW 2006; 87.

Oluwayelu D, Adebiyi A, Tomori O. Endemic and emerging arboviral diseases of livestock in Nigeria: a review. Parasites and vectors. 2018; 1:337.

Adebiyi, AI and Oluwayelu DO. Zoonotic fungal diseases and animal ownership in Nigeria. Alex J Med 2018; 54: 397–402.

WHA World Health Assembly: resolutions and decisions, annexes. In: WHO, editor. 60thWorld Health Assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization 2007.

Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1018–1027.

Maudlin I, Eisler MC and Welburn SC. Neglected and endemic zoonoses. Philos Trans R Soc Lon B Biol Sci. 2009; 1530: 2777-2787.

Molyneux DH. Combating the ‘other diseases’ of MDG 6: changing the paradigm to achieve equity and poverty reduction? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2008; 102:509–519.

Ogbonna, C. 2015. Zoonoses: an age-long threat to human existence: public health practice and the panacea. http://cactus.unijos.edu.ng/jspui/bitstream/123456789/728/1/Zoonoses%20and%20the%20Human2%20pdf.pdf :Accessed at: Feb 10, 2019.

WHO. The Control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases: A Route to Poverty Alleviation. WHO, Geneva; 2009. 3. WHO. Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases in Africa: Applying the “One Health” Concept. WHO, Geneva; 2009.

Welburn SC, Beange I, Ducrotoy MJ and Okello AL. The neglected zoonoses—the case for integrated control and advocacy. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2015; 5:433-443.

King L. The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies. The National Academies. 2011.

Adesiji YO, Deekshit VK and Karunasagar I. Antimicrobial resistant genes associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from human, poultry, and seafood sources. Food science & nutrition. 2014; 4:436-442.

Coker AO, Isokpehi RD, Thomas BN., Fagbenro-Beyioku AF and Omilabu SA. Zoonotic infections in Nigeria: overview from a medical perspective Acta Tropica. 2000; 1: 59–63.

Ehizibolo DO, Ogunsan E, Muhammad MJ. et al. Diagnosis of canine rabies by the fluorescent antibody technique in Plateau State, Nigeria. Nig. Vet. Jour. 2008; 2: 20-24.

World Health Organization. The control of neglected zoonotic diseases: a route to poverty alleviation. Report of a joint WHO/DFID-AHP meetings with the participation of FAO and OIE, Geneva, 20 and 21 September 2005. Geneva: WHO. 2006.

Michel AI, Bengis RG, Keet DF et al. Wildlife tuberculosis in South Africa conservation areas: implication and challenges. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006; 112: 91-100.

Bikas C, Jelastopulu E, Leotsinidis M and Kondakis X. Epidemiology of human brucellosis in rural area of northwestern Peloponnese in Greece. Eur J Epidemiol. 2003; 18: 267-274.

Cosivi O, Grange JM, Daborn CJ et al. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998; 4:59-70.

Bertu WJ, Ajogi I, Bale JOO, Kwaga JKP and Ocholi RA. Sero-epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in Plateau State. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2010; 19: 1935-1938.

Abubakar, IA. Molecular epidemiology of human and bovine tuberculosis in the Federal Capital Territory and Kaduna state, Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Plymouth University, U.K; 2007.

Cadmus SIB, Palmer S, Okker M, et al. Molecular analysis of human bovine tubercle bacilli from a local setting in Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol. 2006; 1: 29-34.

Okolo, MI. Prevalence of anthrax in emergency slaughtered food animals in Nigeria. Vet. Rec. 1988; 6: 636

Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health and World Health Organization. A Tripartite Guide to Addressing Zoonotic Diseases in Countries https://extranet.who.int/sph/sites/default/files/document-library/document/Tripartite-Guidance-EN-web%20single%20page.pdf; Accessed March 12, 2019.

Fitzpatrick M, Shah H, Pandey A et al. One Health approach to cost-effective rabies control in India. PNAS. 2016; 113:51.