A Systematic Review of the Causes and Challenges of Climate Change on Nigerians’ Economy and Ecosystem


Introduction: Climate change is an adverse environmental phenomenon that the impact is felt at both local and global communities. Nigeria like the rest of the entire continent of Africa is considered highly vulnerable to climate change because of its limited coping capacity, poverty, illiteracy, food insecurity, and diseases associated with climate change. While data on the global impacts of climate change is available, those at regional levels are scanty, rarely available and inaccessible. Hence the need for this study on the causes and effects of climate change on Nigerians economy and ecosystem.

Methods: The methodology adopted was purely on content analysis of secondary data and observed information from field survey. Reports and presentations from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and Department for International Development (DFID), National Climate Change Commission (NCCC) and Nigerian Environmental Study Team (NEST) were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Related published literatures and documents were also searched in a systematic manner, using a range of key words relating to climate change impact on the Health, Ecosystem and Nigerians Economy.

Results: Our review of the subject matter indicated that many areas of Nigerian economy and ecosystem appear to be directly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as agricultural and health sectors, due to increase in average temperature and rainfall. Rising in sea levels, emerging pest/diseases, changing of the ecosystem and food insecurity were also established.

Conclusion: Climate change effects are significant and requires technological and policy innovation to realise low-carbon growth in Nigeria. Field trials on crop production in local ecosystems will highlight crops that are most vulnerable to the changing climate and identify areas of research focus. Greenification of the lands, minimization of pollutants/contaminants in the atmosphere and adoption of environmentally friendly technology are highly advocated.

Keyword: Climate change, ecosystem, global warming, greenhouse gases, greenification.

Contexte : Le changement climatique est un phénomène environnemental néfaste dont l’impact est ressenti au sein des communautés locales et mondiales. Le Nigeria, à l’instar du reste de l’ensemble du continent africain, est considéré comme extrêmement vulnérable au changement climatique en raison de ses capacités d’adaptation limitées, de sa pauvreté, de son analphabétisme, de son insécurité alimentaire et des maladies associées aux changements climatiques. Tandis que des données sur les impacts globaux du changement climatique sont disponibles, celles-ci au niveau régional sont rares, rarement disponibles et accessibles. D’où la nécessité de cette étude sur les causes et les effets des changements climatiques sur l’économie et l’écosystème Nigérian.

Méthodes : La méthodologie adoptée a consisté uniquement en une analyse du contenu de données secondaires et des informations observées provenant d’enquêtes de terrain. Rapports et présentations du Panel Intergouvernemental sur le Changement de Climat (PICC), et Département de Développement International (DFID), Commission Nationale sur les Changements Climatiques (CNCC) et l’Equipe d’Etude Environnementale du Nigeria (NEST) ont été identifiés aux fins d’examen par une recherche complète en utilisant des bases de données électroniques et non électroniques. La littérature et documents semblables publiées ont également été recherchés de manière systématique, en utilisant une gamme de mots clés relatifs aux impacts sur la santé des changements climatiques, l’écosystèmes et l’économie Nigérian.

Résultats : Notre examen du sujet a montré que de nombreux domaines de l’économie et de l’écosystème nigérians semblent directement vulnérables aux effets du changement climatique, tels que les secteurs de l’agriculture et de la santé, en raison de l’augmentation des températures et des précipitations moyennes. L’élévation du niveau de la mer, l’apparition de parasites / maladies émergents, le changement de l’écosystème et l’insécurité alimentaire ont également été constatés.
Conclusion : Les effets du changement climatique sont importants et nécessitent des innovations technologiques et politiques pour parvenir à une sobre croissance en carbone au Nigéria. Les essais sur le terrain de la production végétale dans les écosystèmes locaux mettront en évidence les cultures les plus vulnérables au changement climatique et identifieront les domaines de recherche. L’afforestation / gazonnage des terres, la minimisation des polluants / contaminants dans l’atmosphère et l’adoption de technologies respectueuses de l’environnement sont vivement recommandées.

Mot-clés: Changement climatique, écosystème, réchauffement de la planète, gaz à effet de serre, afforestation / gazonnage.

Correspondence: Dr. O.T. Okareh, Department of Environment Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria,. E-mail: dapsy2001@yahoo.co.uk



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