Smoked Food Consumption as Significant Risk Factor for Advanced Breast Cancer on Bone Scan in a Southwest Nigerian Hospital
Click to view file (PDF)

Keywords

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Smoked foods
Breast Neoplasms
Diet
Nuclear Medicine
Radionuclide Imaging

Abstract

The ingestion of smoked foods has been linked to the development of cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been recognized as carcinogenic compounds which contaminates smoked foods; their ingestion has been linked to the development of cancers such as breast cancer. Breast cancer may be evaluated using the nuclear bone scan as an imaging modality. This study reviewed bone scan results of patients with a positive history of consumption of smoked foods who presented at a Nuclear Medicine facility in South-West Nigeria. Our results show a significant association between a positive history of consumption of smoked foods and the presence of advanced breast cancer on the bone scan ((χ2 = 11.190, p = 0.001, df = 2; Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) = 1.692(1.242-2.304). Thus, those patients with a history of eating smoked foods have between 50-100% increase in the risk of having abnormal scan findings. In a logistic regression, this association was retained (AOR=0.591 (0.434-0.805). Recommendations are made to address the significance of these findings.

Click to view file (PDF)

References

Achten, C. and Andersson, J. T. (2015): ‘Overview of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC)’, Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 35(2–4), pp. 177–186. doi:

Akpambang V O E, Purcaro 1, G, Lajide L, Amoo I A, Conte L S, Moret S (2009): ‘Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commonly consumed Nigerian smoked/grilled fish and meat’, Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 26(7), pp. 1096–1103.

Awofeso O, Roberts A.A, Salako O, Balogun L, Okediji P (2018): ‘Prevalence and pattern of late-stage presentation in women with breast and cervical cancers in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria’, Nigerian Medical Journal, 59(6), p. 74.

Dairo M.D, D. B. Adamu, Y. A. Onimode, A. Ntekim, and O. Ayeni (2018): ‘Characteristics and Determinants of Patients Discontinuation of Breast Cancer Follow-Up Care at the Radiation Oncology Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria’, International Journal of Breast Cancer, 2018.

Einat Even-Sapir, Ur Metser, Eyal Mishani, Gennady Lievshitz, Hedva Lerman, M. and and Ilan Leibovitch, (2006): ‘The Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients with High-Risk Prostate Cancer : 99m Tc-MDP Planar’, Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 47, pp. 287–297.

European Food Safety Authority (2012) Salmonella | European Food Safety Authority, European Food Safety Authority. Available at: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/margin-exposure (Accessed: 2 October 2019).

European Food Safety Authority Scientific Committee (2012): ‘Statement on the applicability of the Margin of Exposure approach for the safety assessment of impurities which are both genotoxic and carcinogenic in substances added to food/feed’, EFSA Journal, 10(3), p. 2578. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2578.

FAO, W. (2019) About Codex | CODEXALIMENTARIUS FAO-WHO. Available at: http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/about-codex/en/#c453333 (Accessed: 27 September 2019).

Hamaoka T, Madewell, J.E, Podoloff D.A, Hortobagyi G.N, Ueno N.T (2004) ‘Bone imaging in metastatic breast cancer’, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22(14), pp. 2942–2953.

Helyar Vincent, Hosahalli K. Mohan, Tara Barwick, Lefteris Livieratos, Gopinath Gnanasegaran, Susan E. M. Clarke & Ignac Fogelman (2010) ‘The added value of multislice SPECT/CT in patients with equivocal bony metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate’, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 37(4), pp. 706–713. doi: 10.1007/s00259-009-1334-3.

Kotepui, M. (2016) ‘Diet and risk of breast cancer’, Wspolczesna Onkologia, 20(1), pp. 13–19. doi: 10.5114/wo.2014.40560.

Olarewaju, S. O., Oyekunle, E. O. and Bamiro, A. O. (2019) ‘Effect of Sociodemographic Variables on Patient and Diagnostic Delay of Breast Cancer at the Foremost Health Care Institution in Nigeria’, Journal of Global Oncology, (5), pp. 1–8. doi: 10.1200/jgo.19.00108.

Parada Humberto Jr, Susan E Steck , Patrick T Bradshaw, Lawrence S Engel, Kathleen Conway, Susan L Teitelbaum, Alfred I Neugut, Regina M Santella, Marilie D Gammon (2017) ‘Grilled, Barbecued, and Smoked Meat Intake and Survival Following Breast Cancer’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 109(6), pp. 1–8.

Rodgers George P., John Z. Ayanian, Gary Balady, John W. Beasley, Kenneth A. Brown, Ernest V. Gervino, Stephen Paridon, Miguel Quinones, Robert C. Schlant, , William L. WintersJr, James L. Achord, Alan W. Boone, John W. HirshfeldJr, Beverly H. Lorell, George P. Rodgers, Cynthia M. Tracy, and Howard H. Weitz (2000) ‘American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Clinical Competence statement on stress testing: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine task ’, Circulation. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 102(14), pp. 1726–1738.

Sharma Punit, Varun Singh Dhull, Rama Mohan Reddy, Chandrasekhar Ba, Sanjay Thulkar, Arun Malhotra, Rakesh Kumar (2013) ‘Hybrid SPECT-CT for characterizing isolated vertebral lesions observed by bone scintigraphy: Comparison with planar scintigraphy, SPECT, and CT’, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, 19(1), pp. 33–40.

Standard For Smoked Fish, Smoke-Flavoured Fish And Smoke-Dried Fish CXS 311- 2013 (2013). http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcodex%252FStandards%252FCXS%2B311-2013%252FCXS_311e.pdf. Available at: http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcodex%252FStandards%252FCXS%2B311-2013%252FCXS_311e.pdf (Accessed: 27 September 2019).

Stout S., S. Emsbo-Mattingly, +2 authors K. J. Mccarthy (2015): ‘Beyond 16 Priority Pollutant PAHs: A Review of PACs used in Environmental Forensic Chemistry’, Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 35(2–4), pp. 285–315.

Tongo, I., Ogbeide, O. and Ezemonye, L. (2017) ‘Human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish species from markets in Southern Nigeria’, Toxicology Reports. Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 4, pp. 55–61.

US Environment Protection Agency; (2013) ‘Extra_Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Fact Sheet’, Environmental Health, pp. 1–2. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-03/documents/pahs_factsheet_cdc_2013.pdf

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Biomedical Research